Learn More
Wnt signaling is required for development of mesoderm-derived lineages and expression of transcription factors associated with the primitive streak. In a functional screen, we examined the mesoderm-inducing capacity of transcription factors whose expression was Wnt-dependent in differentiating ESCs. In contrast to many inactive factors, we found that(More)
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is activated in the majority of melanomas, and its activity is essential for cell survival. In this report, we examined the effects of a novel raf inhibitor BAY 43-9006 on melanoma cell viability and intracellular signaling and found that it induces apoptosis through a caspase-independent mechanism. At concentrations(More)
It is well established that axons of the adult mammalian CNS are capable of regrowing only a limited amount after injury. Astrocytes are believed to play a crucial role in the failure to regenerate, producing multiple inhibitory proteoglycans, such as chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs). After spinal cord injury (SCI), astrocytes become hypertrophic(More)
RATIONALE Mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake is essential for the bioenergetic feedback response through stimulation of Krebs cycle dehydrogenases. Close association of mitochondria to the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) may explain efficient mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake despite low Ca(2+) affinity of the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter. However, the existence of such(More)
Tamoxifen has been found to be neuroprotective in both transient and permanent experimental ischemic stroke. However, it remains unknown whether this agent shows a similar beneficial effect after spinal cord injury (SCI), and what are its underlying mechanisms. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of tamoxifen treatment in attenuating SCI-induced(More)
The ideal treatment of localized cancer should directly cause an irreversible and complete death of tumor cells without damage to surrounding normal tissue. High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is such a potential treatment, which induces a complete coagulative necrosis of a tumor at depth through the intact skin. The idea that using an extracorporeal(More)
gamma-Aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptors are the most important inhibitory receptors in the central nervous system, playing a pivotal role in the regulation of brain excitability. The pentameric receptor is commonly composed of different alpha, beta, and gamma subunits which mediate the function and pharmacology of the receptor and show regional-(More)
Astrogliosis occurs after brain ischemia, and excessive astrogliosis can devastate the neuronal recovery. Previous reports show that galectin-1 (Gal-1) regulates proliferation of several cell types and plays an important role after nervous system injuries. Here, we found that expression of Gal-1 was remarkably up-regulated in activated astrocytes around(More)
PURPOSE We assessed adding the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib to gemcitabine or capecitabine in patients with advanced breast cancer whose disease progressed during/after bevacizumab. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase IIb study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00493636) enrolled patients with locally advanced or metastatic(More)