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Cloud resources are usually priced in multiple markets with different service guarantees. For example, Amazon EC2 prices virtual instances under three pricing schemes -- the subscription option (a.k.a., Reserved Instances), the pay-as-you-go offer (a.k.a., On-Demand Instances), and an auction-like spot market (a.k.a., Spot Instances) -- simultaneously.(More)
—Cloud service pricing plays a pivotal role towards the success of cloud computing. Existing pricing schemes, however , either provide no service guarantees (e.g., Spot Instances in Amazon EC2), or use static on-demand pricing in which the price cannot respond quickly to market dynamics (e.g., On-demand Instances in Amazon EC2). To overcome these problems,(More)
We study the multi-resource allocation problem in cloud computing systems where the resource pool is constructed from a large number of heterogeneous servers, representing different points in the configuration space of resources such as processing, memory, and storage. We design a multi-resource allocation mechanism, called DRFH, that generalizes the notion(More)
Infrastructure-as-a-Service clouds offer diverse pricing options, including on-demand and reserved instances with various discounts to attract different cloud users. A practical problem facing cloud users is how to minimize their costs by choosing among different pricing options based on their own demands. In this paper, we propose a new cloud brokerage(More)
Market-driven spectrum auctions offer an efficient way to improve spectrum utilization by transferring unused or under-used spectrum from its primary license holder to spectrum-deficient secondary users. Such a spectrum market exhibits strong locality in two aspects: 1) that spectrum is a local resource and can only be traded to users within the license(More)
Some Pseudomonas strains function as predominant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Within this group, Pseudomonas chlororaphis and Pseudomonas fluorescens are non-pathogenic biocontrol agents, and some Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas stutzeri strains are PGPR. P. chlororaphis GP72 is a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium with a fully(More)
We study the multi-resource allocation problem in cloud computing systems where the resource pool is constructed from a large number of heterogeneous servers, representing different points in the configuration space of resources such as processing, memory, and storage. We design a multi-resource allocation mechanism, called DRFH, that generalizes the notion(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the feasibility, effectiveness, and safety of reinnervation of the bilateral posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA) muscles using the left phrenic nerve in patients with bilateral vocal fold paralysis. METHODS Forty-four patients with bilateral vocal fold paralysis who underwent reinnervation of the bilateral PCA muscles using the left(More)
—Providing quality-of-service guarantees by means of fair sharing has never been more challenging in datacenters. Due to the heterogeneity of machine configurations, datacenter jobs frequently specify placement constraints, restricting them to run on a particular class of machines meeting specific hardware/software requirements. In addition, jobs have(More)
—Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) clouds offer diverse instance purchasing options. A user can either run instances on demand and pay only for what it uses, or it can prepay to reserve instances for a long period, during which a usage discount is entitled. An important problem facing a user is how these two instance options can be dynamically combined to(More)