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Papaya, a fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, is known for its nutritional benefits and medicinal applications. Here we report a 3x draft genome sequence of 'SunUp' papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree to be sequenced. The papaya genome is three times the size of the Arabidopsis genome, but contains fewer(More)
TRAPP is a conserved protein complex required early in the secretory pathway. Here, we report two forms of TRAPP, TRAPP I and TRAPP II, that mediate different transport events. Using chemically pure TRAPP I and COPII vesicles, we have reconstituted vesicle targeting in vitro. The binding of COPII vesicles to TRAPP I is specific, blocked by GTPgammaS, and,(More)
Chemokines direct the trafficking of white blood cells in immune surveillance, playing a key role in inflammatory and infectious diseases such as AIDS. All chemokines studied so far are secreted proteins of relative molecular mass approximately 7K-15K and fall into three families that are defined by a cysteine signature motif: CXC, CC and C (refs 3, 6, 7),(More)
Activity of several ion channels is controlled by heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (G proteins) via a membrane-delimited pathway that does not involve cytoplasmic intermediates. The best studied example is the K+ channel activated by muscarinic agonists in the atrium, which plays a crucial role in regulating the heartbeat. To enable studies of the(More)
Signaling by the Notch surface receptor controls cell fate determination in a broad spectrum of tissues. This signaling is triggered by the interaction of the Notch protein with what, so far, have been thought to be transmembrane ligands expressed on adjacent cells. Here biochemical and genetic analyses show that the ligand Delta is cleaved on the surface,(More)
Central nervous system myelin is a specialized structure produced by oligodendrocytes that ensheaths axons, allowing rapid and efficient saltatory conduction of action potentials. Many disorders promote damage to and eventual loss of the myelin sheath, which often results in significant neurological morbidity. However, little is known about the fundamental(More)
Expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 is highly induced by many stresses, including exposure to short-wavelength UV light (UVC), which increases p21 mRNA stability. Investigation into the mechanisms underlying this stabilization process revealed that proteins present in cytoplasmic lysates of human RKO colorectal carcinoma cells formed(More)
The Meishan section across the Permian-Triassic boundary in South China is the most thoroughly investigated in the world. A statistical analysis of the occurrences of 162 genera and 333 species confirms a sudden extinction event at 251.4 million years ago, coincident with a dramatic depletion of delta13C(carbonate) and an increase in microspherules.
An auditory oddball paradigm was used to record the P300 component of the event-related potential (ERP) in a group of medication-free, chronic male alcoholics (n = 51, mean = 32.2) and a control group (n = 25, mean = 27.2). Each subject received a binaurally presented series of high (1600-Hz)- and low (600-Hz)-frequency tones. The designation of the rare(More)
In our previous studies, we have demonstrated an ERP correlate of visual memory with a modified delayed matching-to-sample paradigm using a series of nonsense line drawings or faces as stimuli. In this experiment, we employed pictures of objects to determine whether the ERP can reflect the object recognition process and whether visual stimuli with a verbal(More)