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Wnt signaling is required for development of mesoderm-derived lineages and expression of transcription factors associated with the primitive streak. In a functional screen, we examined the mesoderm-inducing capacity of transcription factors whose expression was Wnt-dependent in differentiating ESCs. In contrast to many inactive factors, we found that(More)
RATIONALE Mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake is essential for the bioenergetic feedback response through stimulation of Krebs cycle dehydrogenases. Close association of mitochondria to the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) may explain efficient mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake despite low Ca(2+) affinity of the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter. However, the existence of such(More)
Heterosynaptic long-term depression (hLTD) at untetanized synapses accompanying the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) spatially sharpens the activity-induced synaptic potentiation; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We found that hLTD in the hippocampal CA1 region is caused by stimulation-induced ATP release from astrocytes that(More)
A heterologously expressed form of the human Parkinson disease-associated protein α-synuclein with a 10-residue N-terminal extension is shown to form a stable tetramer in the absence of lipid bilayers or micelles. Sequential NMR assignments, intramonomer nuclear Overhauser effects, and circular dichroism spectra are consistent with transient formation of(More)
Tamoxifen has been found to be neuroprotective in both transient and permanent experimental ischemic stroke. However, it remains unknown whether this agent shows a similar beneficial effect after spinal cord injury (SCI), and what are its underlying mechanisms. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of tamoxifen treatment in attenuating SCI-induced(More)
gamma-Aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptors are the most important inhibitory receptors in the central nervous system, playing a pivotal role in the regulation of brain excitability. The pentameric receptor is commonly composed of different alpha, beta, and gamma subunits which mediate the function and pharmacology of the receptor and show regional-(More)
BACKGROUND The traditional Chinese theory of acupuncture emphasizes that the intensity of acupuncture must reach a threshold to generate de qi, which is necessary to achieve the best therapeutic effect. De qi is an internal compound sensation of soreness, tingling, fullness, aching, cool, warmth and heaviness, and a radiating sensation at and around the(More)
Astrogliosis occurs after brain ischemia, and excessive astrogliosis can devastate the neuronal recovery. Previous reports show that galectin-1 (Gal-1) regulates proliferation of several cell types and plays an important role after nervous system injuries. Here, we found that expression of Gal-1 was remarkably up-regulated in activated astrocytes around(More)
It is well established that axons of the adult mammalian CNS are capable of regrowing only a limited amount after injury. Astrocytes are believed to play a crucial role in the failure to regenerate, producing multiple inhibitory proteoglycans, such as chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs). After spinal cord injury (SCI), astrocytes become hypertrophic(More)