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In this study, we characterize a novel white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) structural protein, VP51A (WSSV-TW open reading frame 294), identified from a previous mass spectrometry study. Temporal-transcription analysis showed that vp51A is expressed in the late stage of WSSV infection. Gene structure analysis showed that the transcription initiation site of(More)
BACKGROUND Outbreaks of white spot disease have had a large negative economic impact on cultured shrimp worldwide. However, the pathogenesis of the causative virus, WSSV (whit spot syndrome virus), is not yet well understood. WSSV is a large enveloped virus. The WSSV virion has three structural layers surrounding its core DNA: an outer envelope, a tegument(More)
Zebrafish (Danio rerio) were used as a model fish, and the technique of RNA interference (RNAi) was employed to knockdown three subunits of the gonadotropin alpha (GtHalpha, common alpha), follicle-stimulating hormone beta (FSHbeta), and luteinizing hormone beta (LHbeta) genes. Three short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression vectors and three mismatched shRNA(More)
Hepatocyte nuclear factors (HNF-1alpha, -1beta and -3beta) and insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and -II), which are involved in liver-specific gene expression, metabolism, development and cell growth, have been found in the gonads of tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). However, the functions of these factors and how they interact within the gonads of bony(More)
Some freshwater (FW) teleosts are capable of acclimating to seawater (SW) when challenged; however, the related energetic and physiological consequences are still unclear. This study was conducted to examine the changes in expression of gill Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and creatine kinase (CK) in tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) as the acute responses to transfer(More)
Melanin contributes to skin color, and tyrosinase is the enzyme that catalyzes the initial steps of melanin formation. Therefore, tyrosinase inhibitors may contribute to the control of skin hyperpigmentation. The inhibition of tyrosinase activity by Cinnamomum zeylanicum extracts was previously reported. In this report, we test the hypothesis that(More)
The biological functions of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I and II are modulated by a family of IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs) in complex IGF-dependent and IGF-independent pathways. For further understanding of the actions of IGFs, some of these binding proteins have been cloned and characterized. We report the molecular cloning of IGFBP-3 cDNA for(More)
Freshwater (FW) teleosts are capable of acclimating to seawater (SW) following such a transfer from FW. However, their osmoregulating mechanisms are still unclear, particularly those in the brain. The present study was conducted to examine acute changes that occur in brain Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity, creatine kinase (CK) activity, creatine, creatinine(More)
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a large enveloped virus. The WSSV viral particle consists of three structural layers that surround its core DNA: an outer envelope, a tegument and a nucleocapsid. Here we characterize the WSSV structural protein VP11 (WSSV394, GenBank accession number AF440570), and use an interactome approach to analyze the possible(More)
During the breeding season, dynamic changes in body coloration are regularly observed in the male brown tree frog Buergeria robusta. This study investigated the hypothesis that this sexual dichromatism in male B. robusta is mediated through hormonal regulation. Frogs were exogenously injected with testosterone (T) or estradiol (E2). This manipulation(More)