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Id genes encode helix-loop-helix proteins that inhibit transcription by forming inactive heterodimers with basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins. bHLH proteins normally form either homodimers or heterodimers with other bHLH proteins and bind to a DNA sequence element activating transcription. Id-containing heterodimers are inactive because Id proteins lack(More)
Expression of α-amylase genes in rice is induced not only by sugar starvation and gibberellin (GA) but also by O2 deficiency. Promoters of two rice α-amylase genes, αAmy3 and αAmy8, have been shown to direct high-level production of recombinant proteins in rice suspension cells and germinated seeds. In the present study, we modified the cis-acting DNA(More)
Protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) play an integral role in T cell activation and differentiation. Defects in the Src-family PTKs in mice and in T cell lines have resulted in variable defects in thymic development and in T cell antigen receptor (TCR) signal transduction. Here, three siblings are described with an autosomal recessive form of severe combined(More)
To evaluate the role of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and other signaling pathways in neuronal cell differentiation by basic fibroblast-derived growth factor (bFGF), we used a conditionally immortalized cell line from rat hippocampal neurons (H19-7). Previous studies have shown that activation of MAP kinase kinase (MEK) is insufficient to induce(More)
To elucidate signal transduction pathways leading to neuronal differentiation, we have investigated a conditionally immortalized cell line from rat hippocampal neurons (H19-7) that express a temperature sensitive simian virus 40 large T antigen. Treatment of H19-7 cells with the differentiating agent basic fibroblast growth factor at 39 degrees C, the(More)
The Id proteins belong to a family of nuclear HLH proteins lacking a basic region and thought to function as dominant-negative regulators of bHLH proteins during cell growth and differentiation. In this paper, we report the genomic organization of the mouse Id2 and Id4 genes. These genes each span approximately 3 kb of the mouse genome and are each(More)
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