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CD80 is expressed on all antigen-presenting cells and is present on podocytes in a number of experimental models of nephrotic syndrome. We tested whether urinary soluble CD80 increased with idiopathic minimal-change disease (MCD). We collected urine and serum samples from patients with MCD in relapse and in remission, patients with nephrotic syndrome(More)
BACKGROUND We recently found evidence of tubular epithelial-myofibroblast transdifferentiation (TEMT) during the development of tubulointerstitial fibrosis in the rat remnant kidney. This study investigated the mechanisms that induce TEMT in vitro. METHODS The normal rat kidney tubular epithelial cell line (NRK52E) was cultured for six days on plastic or(More)
Controversy exists as to whether minimal change disease (MCD) and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) represent different diseases or are manifestations within the same disease spectrum. Urinary excretion of CD80 (also known as B7.1) is elevated in patients with MCD and hence we tested whether urinary CD80 excretion might distinguish between patients(More)
It has been suggested that increased fructose intake is associated with obesity. We hypothesized that chronic fructose consumption causes leptin resistance, which subsequently may promote the development of obesity in response to a high-fat diet. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a fructose-free control or 60% fructose diet for 6 mo and then tested for leptin(More)
BACKGROUND Hyperuricemia has been linked to cardiovascular and renal diseases, possibly through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent endothelial dysfunction. The enzymatic effect of xanthine oxidase is the production of ROS and uric acid. Studies have shown that inhibiting xanthine oxidase with allopurinol can reverse endothelial(More)
We report a simple and reliable method for detection of two or more antigens within tissue sections by indirect immunoenzyme staining using mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). This technique involves treating sections with two 5-min microwave (MW) oven heatings between sequential rounds of three-layer immunoenzyme staining (mouse MAb, goat anti-mouse IgG,(More)
BACKGROUND The mediator known historically as macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has been identified recently as being released into the circulation by the anterior pituitary gland as a consequence of stress or during a systemic inflammatory response. Macrophages and T cells also secrete MIF, both in response to proinflammatory factors or upon(More)
Interleukin-1 (IL-1) has been shown to exert profibrotic activity in a number of disease models, including crescentic glomerulonephritis and pulmonary fibrosis, but the mechanisms by which this operates are poorly understood. Recent studies have identified a novel mechanism promoting renal fibrosis: tubular epithelial-myofibroblast transdifferentiation(More)
BACKGROUND Angiogenesis has a key role in numerous disease processes. One of the most important angiogenic factors is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A), whereas thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is a major antiangiogenic factor. Recent studies have shown that VEGF-A as well as TSP-1 is regulated by transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), but the(More)
Idiopathic minimal lesion nephrotic syndrome (IMLNS) was proposed to be a disorder of T-cell dysfunction by Shalhoub in 1974. The mechanisms by which T-cells increase glomerular permeability have remained elusive (and unproven). There is evidence that IMLNS may be due to a circulating factor released from activated T-cells. In recent years, efforts have(More)