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A 2.91-billion base pair (bp) consensus sequence of the euchromatic portion of the human genome was generated by the whole-genome shotgun sequencing method. The 14.8-billion bp DNA sequence was generated over 9 months from 27,271,853 high-quality sequence reads (5.11-fold coverage of the genome) from both ends of plasmid clones made from the DNA of five(More)
Neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) often store more than one neurotransmitter, but as yet the functional significance of this type of coexistence is poorly understood. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) modulates calcium-dependent K+ channels (KCa) responsible for the postspike afterhyperpolarization in different regions of the CNS. In lamprey, 5-HT(More)
We describe Paradropper, a general-purpose global computing system based on a peer-to-peer self-organizing overlay network. In Paradropper, the peer is organized into an overlay network with " small world " characteristics, and workload is well balanced among the peers according to their workload in a decentralized manner. Particularly, it not only supports(More)
OBJECTIVE Treatment-resistant depression is a significant public health concern; drug switching or augmentation often produce limited results. The authors hypothesized that fluoxetine could be augmented with olanzapine to successfully treat resistant depression. METHOD An 8-week double-blind study was conducted with 28 patients who were diagnosed with(More)
Tachykinin immunoreactivity is found in a ventromedial spinal plexus in the lamprey. Neurons in this plexus project bilaterally and are thus in a position to modulate locomotor networks on both sides of the spinal cord. We have examined the effects of the tachykinin substance P on NMDA-evoked locomotor activity. Brief (10 min) application of tachykinin(More)
In this marker evaluation study, we tested whether distinct patterns of functional genomic polymorphisms in genes involved in drug metabolic pathways and DNA repair that predict clinical outcome to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)/oxaliplatin chemotherapy in patients with advanced colorectal cancer could be identified. Functional polymorphisms in DNA-repair genes XPD,(More)
Activation of NMDA receptors evokes sustained fictive locomotion in the isolated spinal cord of the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus (P. marinus), but in the river lamprey Lampetra fluviatilis (L. fluviatilis) the ventral root activity is often irregular. A previous study showed that the number of 5-HT immunoreactive fibres, neurones and varicosities are much(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to modulate autonomic function by acting both peripherally and centrally. A growing body of evidence indicates that the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), an important site for autonomic and endocrine homeostasis, constitutes an important locus mediating central NO actions. However, the cellular targets and(More)
The glutamatergic system has been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression and the mechanism of action of antidepressants. Leptin, an adipocyte-derived hormone, has antidepressant-like properties. However, the functional role of leptin receptor (Lepr) signaling in glutamatergic neurons remains to be elucidated. In this study, we generated conditional(More)
T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) engagement activates multiple protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs), including the Src family member, Lck, and the Syk-related PTK, ZAP-70. Studies in ZAP-70-deficient humans have demonstrated that ZAP-70 plays crucial roles in T-cell activation and development. However, progress toward a detailed understanding of the regulation and(More)