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Mice representing precise genetic replicas of Huntington's disease (HD) were made using gene targeting to replace the short CAG repeat of the mouse Huntington's disease gene homolog (HDH:) with CAG repeats within the length range found to cause HD in humans. Mice with alleles of approximately 150 units in length exhibit late-onset behavioral and(More)
Productive infection by human papillomaviruses (HPVs) occurs only in differentiated squamous epithelial cells in papillomas, condylomata, and low grade intraepithelial neoplasias. Host DNA replication is reactivated in a fraction of terminally differentiated keratinocytes in benign human lesions and in organotypic raft cultures of primary human(More)
The productive program of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) in epithelia is tightly linked to squamous differentiation. The E7 proteins of high-risk HPV genotypes efficiently inactivate the pRB family of proteins that control the cell cycle, triggering S phase in suprabasal keratinocytes. This ability has until now not been demonstrated for the low-risk HPV-6(More)
The effects of human papillomavirus type 18 (HPV-18) E6 and E7 proteins on global patterns of host gene expression in primary human keratinocytes grown in organotypic raft culture system were assessed. Primary human keratinocytes were infected with retroviruses that express the wild-type HPV-18 E6 and E7 genes from the native differentiation-dependent HPV(More)
The human papillomavirus (HPV) E7 protein promotes S-phase reentry in a fraction of postmitotic, differentiated keratinocytes. Here we report that these cells contain an inherent mechanism that opposes E7-induced DNA replication. In organotypic raft cultures of primary human keratinocytes, neither cyclin E nor p21cip1 is detectable in situ. However,(More)
The human papillomavirus type 18 (HPV-18) E7 protein promotes S-phase reentry in postmitotic, differentiated keratinocytes in squamous epithelium to facilitate vegetative viral DNA amplification. To examine the nature and fate of the differentiated cells that reenter S phase, organotypic cultures of primary human keratinocytes transduced with HPV-18 E7 were(More)
Productive infections by human papillomaviruses (HPVs) occur only in differentiated keratinocytes in squamous epithelia in which the HPV E7 protein reactivates the host DNA replication machinery to support viral DNA replication. In a fraction of the differentiated keratinocytes, E7 also posttranscriptionally induces p21Cip1, which is distributed in a(More)
The human papillomavirus type 18 E7 protein subverts the pRb/E2F pathway to promote S-phase reentry by postmitotic, differentiated primary human keratinocytes in support of viral DNA amplification. We prepared a panel of HPV-18 E7 mutations in pRb binding or in casein kinase II (CKII) phosphorylation. Our results showed that the ability of E7 binding to pRb(More)
The proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is essential for DNA replication of mammalian cells and their small DNA tumor viruses. The mechanism of the cell cycle-dependent regulation of the human PCNA promoter is not clear despite extensive investigations. In this report, we employed organotypic cultures of primary human keratinocytes, which closely(More)