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This paper summarizes our present theoretical understanding of single-molecule kinetics associated with the Michaelis-Menten mechanism of enzymatic reactions. Single-molecule enzymatic turnover experiments typically measure the probability density f(t) of the stochastic waiting time t for individual turnovers. While f(t) can be reconciled with ensemble(More)
Label-free chemical contrast is highly desirable in biomedical imaging. Spontaneous Raman microscopy provides specific vibrational signatures of chemical bonds, but is often hindered by low sensitivity. Here we report a three-dimensional multiphoton vibrational imaging technique based on stimulated Raman scattering (SRS). The sensitivity of SRS imaging is(More)
Recent single-molecule enzymology measurements with improved statistics have demonstrated that a single enzyme molecule exhibits large temporal fluctuations of the turnover rate constant at a broad range of time scales (from 1 ms to 100 s). The rate constant fluctuations, termed as dynamic disorder, are associated with fluctuations of the protein(More)
The fluctuation of the distance between a fluorescein-tyrosine pair within a single protein complex was directly monitored in real time by photoinduced electron transfer and found to be a stationary, time-reversible, and non-Markovian Gaussian process. Within the generalized Langevin equation formalism, we experimentally determine the memory kernel K(t),(More)
Enzymes are dynamic entities: both their conformation and catalytic activity fluctuate over time. When such fluctuations are relatively fast, it is not surprising that the classical Michaelis-Menten (MM) relationship between the steady-state enzymatic velocity and the substrate concentration still holds. However, recent single-molecule experiments have(More)
The quest for ultrahigh detection sensitivity with spectroscopic contrasts other than fluorescence has led to various novel approaches to optical microscopy of biological systems. Coherent nonlinear optical imaging, especially the recently developed nonlinear dissipation microscopy (including stimulated Raman scattering and two-photon absorption) and(More)
Fluorescence, that is, spontaneous emission, is generally more sensitive than absorption measurement, and is widely used in optical imaging. However, many chromophores, such as haemoglobin and cytochromes, absorb but have undetectable fluorescence because the spontaneous emission is dominated by their fast non-radiative decay. Yet the detection of their(More)
Identification of genes regulating fat accumulation is important for basic and medical research; genetic screening for those genes in Caenorhabditis elegans, a widely used model organism, requires in vivo quantification of lipids. We demonstrated RNA interference screening based on quantitative imaging of lipids with label-free stimulated Raman scattering(More)
Heme proteins, such as hemoglobins and cytochromes, play important roles in various biological processes. Here we employ the two-photon excited photothermal effect as a contrast mechanism to map heme proteins distribution. Particularly, both a thermal lens scheme and a high-frequency modulation are utilized to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio. We(More)
Optical studies of single molecules in ambient environments, which have led to broad applications, are primarily based on fluorescence detection. Direct detection of optical absorption with single-molecule sensitivity at room temperature is difficult because absorption is not a background-free measurement and is often complicated by sample scattering. Here(More)