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MOTIVATION We consider the problem of estimating values associated with gene expression from oligonucleotide arrays. Such estimates should linearly track concentration, yield non-negative results, have statistical guarantees of robustness against outliers, and allow estimates of significance and variance. RESULTS A hierarchy of simple models is used to(More)
As part of a study on the role of cytokines in central nervous system development and dysfunction, we determined the pattern of cytokine production in highly purified cultures of microglia and astrocytes isolated from second-trimester human fetal brains. Levels of TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-6 mRNA and protein were determined by Northern blot analysis and(More)
MOTIVATION We consider the detection of expressed genes and the comparison of them in different experiments with the high-density oligonucleotide microarrays. The results are summarized as the detection calls and comparison calls, and they should be robust against data outliers over a wide target concentration range. It is also helpful to provide parameters(More)
New outbreaks of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) among injecting drug users (IDUs) are spreading in China along heroin trafficking routes. Recently, two separate HIV-1 epidemics among IDUs were reported in Guangxi, Southern China, where partial sequencing of the env gene showed subtype C and circulating recombinant form (CRF) AE. We evaluated(More)
Little is known for certain about the genetics of schizophrenia. The advent of genomewide association has been widely anticipated as a promising means to identify reproducible DNA sequence variation associated with this important and debilitating disorder. A total of 738 cases with DSM-IV schizophrenia (all participants in the CATIE study) and 733(More)
Coronaviruses can infect a variety of animals including poultry, livestock, and humans and are currently classified into three groups. The interspecies transmissions of coronaviruses between different hosts form a complex ecosystem of which little is known. The outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the recent identification of new(More)
H5N1 avian influenza virus (AIV) has emerged as a pathogenic entity for a variety of species, including humans, in recent years. Here we report an outbreak among migratory birds on Lake Qinghaihu, China, in May and June 2005, in which more than a thousand birds were affected. Pancreatic necrosis and abnormal neurological symptoms were the major clinical(More)
The transcription factor E2F-1 induces both cell-cycle progression and, in certain settings, apoptosis. E2F-1 uses both p53-dependent and p53-independent pathways to kill cells. The p53-dependent pathway involves the induction by E2F-1 of the human tumour-suppressor protein p14ARF, which neutralizes HDM2 (human homologue of MDM2) and thereby stabilizes the(More)
During retinogenesis, the Xenopus basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Xath5 has been shown to promote a ganglion cell fate. In the developing mouse and chicken retinas, gene targeting and overexpression studies have demonstrated critical roles for the Brn3 POU domain transcription factor genes in the promotion of ganglion cell differentiation.(More)
PURPOSE The Microarray Innovations in Leukemia study assessed the clinical utility of gene expression profiling as a single test to subtype leukemias into conventional categories of myeloid and lymphoid malignancies. METHODS The investigation was performed in 11 laboratories across three continents and included 3,334 patients. An exploratory retrospective(More)