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CONTEXT In addition to trauma exposure, other factors contribute to risk for development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adulthood. Both genetic and environmental factors are contributory, with child abuse providing significant risk liability. OBJECTIVE To increase understanding of genetic and environmental risk factors as well as their(More)
CONTEXT Genetic inheritance and developmental life stress both contribute to major depressive disorder in adults. Child abuse and trauma alter the endogenous stress response, principally corticotropin-releasing hormone and its downstream effectors, suggesting that a gene x environment interaction at this locus may be important in depression. OBJECTIVE To(More)
The homeobox gene Six3 regulates forebrain development. Here we show that Six3 is also crucial for lens formation. Conditional deletion of mouse Six3 in the presumptive lens ectoderm (PLE) disrupted lens formation. In the most severe cases, lens induction and specification were defective, and the lens placode and lens were absent. In Six3-mutant embryos,(More)
Adiponutrin and a related protein, adipocyte triglyceride lipase (ATGL; also known as Desnutrin), were recently described as adipocyte-specific proteins with lipid hydrolase activity. Using bioinformatics, we identified three additional Adiponutrin family members (GS2, GS2-Like, and PNPLA1). Here, we report on the expression, regulation, and activity of GS2(More)
Acupuncture is an invasive procedure commonly used to relieve pain. Acupuncture is practiced worldwide, despite difficulties in reconciling its principles with evidence-based medicine. We found that adenosine, a neuromodulator with anti-nociceptive properties, was released during acupuncture in mice and that its anti-nociceptive actions required adenosine(More)
All animals must excrete the waste products of metabolism. Excretion is performed by the kidney in vertebrates and by the Malpighian tubules in Drosophila. The mammalian kidney has an inherent ability for recovery and regeneration after ischemic injury. Stem cells and progenitor cells have been proposed to be responsible for repair and regeneration of(More)
CONTEXT The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF, or corticotropin-releasing hormone) and arginine vasopressin systems have been implicated in the pathophysiology of anxiety and depressive disorders and response to antidepressant treatment. OBJECTIVE To study the association of genetic variants in 10 genes that regulate the CRF and arginine vasopressin(More)
Microglia and astrocytes in the central nervous system are now recognized as active participants in various pathological conditions such as trauma, stroke, or chronic neurodegenerative disorders. Their activation is closely related with the development and severity of diseases. Interestingly, activation of microglia and astrocytes occurs with a spatially(More)
BACKGROUND/AIMS The risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma are incompletely defined in China, especially for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). We evaluated the risk factors for both ICC and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ECC). METHODS A case-control study in which cases were cholangiocarcinoma patients referred to Peking Union Medical College Hospital(More)
Holoprosencephaly (HPE), the most common forebrain malformation, is characterized by an incomplete separation of the cerebral hemispheres. Mutations in the homeobox gene SIX3 account for 1.3% of all cases of human HPE. Using zebrafish-based assays, we have now determined that HPE-associated Six3 mutant proteins function as hypomorphs. Haploinsufficiency of(More)