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The uptake of estradiol into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) after intranasal and intravenous administration in rats was investigated to study whether direct nose-CSF transport of estradiol exits or not. Animals received 0.48 mg kg(-1) estradiol randomly methylated beta-cyclodextrin (RAMEB) inclusion complex intranasally and intravenously. Following nasal(More)
Scott D. King,1 Changyeol Lee,1 Peter E. van Keken,2 Wei Leng,3 Shijie Zhong,3 Eh Tan,4 Nicola Tosi5,6 and Masanori C. Kameyama7 1Department of Geosciences,Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA. E-mail: sdk@vt.edu 2Department of Geological Sciences,University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA 3Department of Physics,University of Colorado, Boulder, CO(More)
[1] The two large low shear velocity provinces (LLSVPs) at the base of the lower mantle are prominent features in all shear wave tomography models. Various lines of evidence suggest that the LLSVPs are thermochemical and are stable on the order of hundreds of million years. Hot spots and large igneous province eruption sites tend to cluster around the edges(More)
[1] Numerical modeling of mantle convection is challenging. Owing to the multiscale nature of mantle dynamics, high resolution is often required in localized regions, with coarser resolution being sufficient elsewhere. When investigating thermochemical mantle convection, high resolution is required to resolve sharp and often discontinuous boundaries between(More)
When developing efficient numerical methods for solving parabolic types of equations, severe temporal stability constraints on the time step are often required due to the high-order spatial derivatives and/or stiff reactions. The implicit integration factor (IIF) method, which treats spatial derivative terms explicitly and reaction terms implicitly, can(More)
BACKGROUND Parkinson's disease (PD) is manifested as degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra compacta. The mitochondrial dysfunction induced by oxidative stress is believed to a major cause of PD. Puerarin has been widely applied due to its estrogen nature and anti-oxidative function. This study thus investigated the protective role of(More)
[1] The mantle plume model has been invoked to explain the formation of large igneous provinces (LIP) and associated age-progressive hotspot tracks. The shape of mantle plumes should be significantly altered by physical properties of the mantle and will influence how plume theory is used to interpret observational constraints. Based on theoretical analysis(More)