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In the present study, we prepared an animal model of adult-onset spinocerebellar ataxia type 7 (SCA7) by generating transgenic mice expressing polyglutamine-expanded ataxin-7-Q52. Mutant ataxin-7-Q52 was expressed in brain areas implicated in SCA7 neurodegeneration, including cerebellum and inferior olivary nucleus. Ataxin-7-Q52 transgenic mice exhibited(More)
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection is a major cause of acute encephalopathy in children, which destroys central nervous system (CNS) cells, including astrocytes and neurons. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 has been shown to degrade components of the basal lamina, leading to disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and to contribute to(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies presented the quasispecies spectrum of the envelope region of dengue virus type 3 (DENV-3) from either clinical specimens or field-caught mosquitoes. However, the extent of sequence variation among full genomic sequences of DENV within infected individuals remains largely unknown. RESULTS Instead of arbitrarily choosing one(More)
Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus is a member of the encephalitic flaviviruses and frequently causes neurological sequelae in a proportion of patients who survive the acute phase of the infection. In the present study, we molecularly identified viral infection in the brain of mice with rigidity of hindlimbs and/or abnormal gait, in which JE virus particles(More)
Cytopathic effects (CPEs) in mosquito cells are generally trivial compared to those that occur in mammalian cells, which usually end up undergoing apoptosis during dengue virus (DENV) infection. However, oxidative stress was detected in both types of infected cells. Despite this, the survival of mosquito cells benefits from the upregulation of genes related(More)
BACKGROUND Dengue virus, a mosquito-borne flavivirus, is the etiological agent of dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, and dengue shock syndrome. It generally induces apoptosis in mammalian cells, but frequently results in persistent infection in mosquito cells. That mechanism remains to be explored. In turn, a genomic survey through subtractive(More)
Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus is the most common cause of epidemic viral encephalitis in the world. The virus mainly infects neuronal cells and causes an inflammatory response after invasion of the parenchyma of the brain. The death of neurons is frequently observed, in which demyelinated axons are commonly seen. The mechanism that accounts for the(More)
Dengue virus (DENV) is naturally transmitted by mosquitoes to humans, infecting cells of both hosts. Unlike in mammalian cells, DENV usually does not cause extremely deleterious effects on cells of mosquitoes. Despite this, clustered progeny virions were found to form infection foci in a high density cell culture. It is thus interesting to know how the(More)
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is one of approximately 70 flaviviruses, frequently causing symptoms involving the central nervous system. Mutations of its genomic RNA frequently occur during viral replication, which is believed to be a force contributing to viral evolution. Nevertheless, accumulating evidences show that some JEV strains may have actually(More)
Cortical cerebellar degeneration was found in a 28-year-old man with testicular neoplasm. The patient, who had undergone a left orchidectomy for the testicular tumor, developed progressive cerebellar symptoms with mental changes 7 months later. The autopsy revealed the spread of a malignant germ cell tumor of the testis, and cortical cerebellar degeneration(More)
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