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Defining the microanatomic differences between the human brain and that of other mammals is key to understanding its unique computational power. Although much effort has been devoted to comparative studies of neurons, astrocytes have received far less attention. We report here that protoplasmic astrocytes in human neocortex are 2.6-fold larger in diameter(More)
Grain-filling, an important trait that contributes greatly to grain weight, is regulated by quantitative trait loci and is associated with crop domestication syndrome. However, the genes and underlying molecular mechanisms controlling crop grain-filling remain elusive. Here we report the isolation and functional analysis of the rice GIF1 (GRAIN INCOMPLETE(More)
Protoplasmic astrocytes are critically important to energy metabolism in the CNS. Our current understanding of the metabolic interactions between neurons and glia is based on studies using cultured cells, from which mainly inferential conclusions have been drawn as to the relative roles of neurons and glia in brain metabolism. In this study, we used(More)
We propose minimum risk training for end-to-end neural machine translation. Unlike conventional maximum likelihood estimation, minimum risk training is capable of optimizing model parameters directly with respect to evaluation metrics. Experiments on Chinese-English and English-French translation show that our approach achieves significant improvements over(More)
In this paper, we investigate the problem of learning a machine translation model that can simultaneously translate sentences from one source language to multiple target languages. Our solution is inspired by the recently proposed neural machine translation model which generalizes machine translation as a sequence learning problem. We extend the neural(More)
—Hyperspectral images (HSIs) are often degraded by a mixture of various kinds of noise in the acquisition process, which can include Gaussian noise, impulse noise, dead lines, stripes, and so on. This paper introduces a new HSI restoration method based on low-rank matrix recovery (LRMR), which can simultaneously remove the Gaussian noise, impulse noise,(More)
A flurry of studies over the past decade has shown that astrocytes play a more active role in neural function than previously recognized. Hippocampal slices prepared from young rodent pups have served as a popular model for studying the pathways by which astrocytes participate in synaptic transmission. It is, however, not known how well astrocytes tolerate(More)
This paper presents an exact formula for calculating the fourth-moment tensor from the second-moment tensor for the three dimensional Jeffery's equation. Although this approach falls within the category of a moment tensor closure, it does not rely upon an approximation, either analytic or curve fit, of the fourth-moment tensor as do previous closures. This(More)