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Defining the microanatomic differences between the human brain and that of other mammals is key to understanding its unique computational power. Although much effort has been devoted to comparative studies of neurons, astrocytes have received far less attention. We report here that protoplasmic astrocytes in human neocortex are 2.6-fold larger in diameter(More)
Grain-filling, an important trait that contributes greatly to grain weight, is regulated by quantitative trait loci and is associated with crop domestication syndrome. However, the genes and underlying molecular mechanisms controlling crop grain-filling remain elusive. Here we report the isolation and functional analysis of the rice GIF1 (GRAIN INCOMPLETE(More)
Protoplasmic astrocytes are critically important to energy metabolism in the CNS. Our current understanding of the metabolic interactions between neurons and glia is based on studies using cultured cells, from which mainly inferential conclusions have been drawn as to the relative roles of neurons and glia in brain metabolism. In this study, we used(More)
We report that eight heterozygous missense mutations in TUBB3, encoding the neuron-specific beta-tubulin isotype III, result in a spectrum of human nervous system disorders that we now call the TUBB3 syndromes. Each mutation causes the ocular motility disorder CFEOM3, whereas some also result in intellectual and behavioral impairments, facial paralysis,(More)
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) regulate multiple cellular processes, including cell differentiation and migration. Their signals are transduced by the kinase receptors BMPR-I and BMPR-II, leading to Smad transcription factor activation via BMPR-I. LIM kinase (LIMK) 1 is a key regulator of actin dynamics as it phosphorylates and inactivates cofilin, an(More)
We propose minimum risk training for end-to-end neural machine translation. Unlike conventional maximum likelihood estimation, minimum risk training is capable of optimizing model parameters directly with respect to evaluation metrics. Experiments on Chinese-English and EnglishFrench translation show that our approach achieves significant improvements over(More)
In this paper, we investigate the problem of learning a machine translation model that can simultaneously translate sentences from one source language to multiple target languages. Our solution is inspired by the recently proposed neural machine translation model which generalizes machine translation as a sequence learning problem. We extend the neural(More)
Tissue homeostasis in mammals relies on powerful cytostatic and differentiation signals delivered by the cytokine TGFbeta and relayed within the cell via the activation of Smad transcription factors. Formation of transcription regulatory complexes by the association of Smad4 with receptor-phosphorylated Smads 2 and 3 is a central event in the canonical(More)
The locus coeruleus (LC) provides the sole source of norepinephrine (NE) to the cortex for modulation of cortical synaptic activity in response to salient sensory information. NE has been shown to improve signal-to-noise ratios, sharpen receptive fields and function in learning, memory, and cognitive performance. Although LC-mediated effects on neurons have(More)