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Higher order energy functions have the ability to encode high level structural dependencies between pixels, which have been shown to be extremely powerful for image labeling problems. Their use, however, is severely hampered in practice by the intractable complexity of representing and minimizing such functions. We observed that higher order functions(More)
Multiple PDZ domain scaffold protein Par-3 and phosphoinositides (PIPs) are required for polarity in diverse cell types. We show that the second PDZ domain of Par-3 binds to phosphatidylinositol (PI) lipid membranes with high affinity. We further demonstrate that a large subset of PDZ domains in mammalian genomes are capable of binding to PI lipid(More)
An expert system for determining resonance assignments from NMR spectra of proteins is described. Given the amino acid sequence, a two-dimensional 15N-1H heteronuclear correlation spectrum and seven to eight three-dimensional triple-resonance NMR spectra for seven proteins, AUTOASSIGN obtained an average of 98% of sequence-specific spin-system assignments(More)
The location, size, and number of synapses critically influence the specificity and strength of neural connections. In axons, synaptic vesicle (SV) and active zone (AZ) proteins are transported by molecular motors and accumulate at discrete presynaptic loci. Little is known about the mechanisms coordinating presynaptic protein transport and deposition to(More)
As the major components of the postsynaptic density of excitatory neuronal synapses, PDZ-domain-containing scaffold proteins regulate the clustering of surface glutamate receptors, organize synaptic signalling complexes, participate in the dynamic trafficking of receptors and ion channels, and coordinate cytoskeletal dynamics. These scaffold proteins often(More)
BACKGROUND Polybutylcyanoacrylate (PBCA) nanoparticles coated with polysorbate-80 have been extensively proposed for delivering drugs into the animal brain and have shown great potential for therapeutic applications. In this study, we made an attempt to deliver the chemotherapeutic drug, temozolomide, into the brain by using PBCA nanoparticles. The(More)
BACKGROUND Whether healthy older people can benefit from cognitive training (CogTr) remains controversial. This study explored the benefits of CogTr in community dwelling, healthy, older adults and compared the effects of single-domain with multi-domain CogTr interventions. METHODS A randomized, controlled, 3-month trial of CogTr with double-blind(More)
Groups play an essential role in many social websites which promote users' interactions and accelerate the diffusion of information. Recommending groups that users are really interested to join is significant for both users and social media. While traditional group recommendation problem has been extensively studied, we focus on a new type of the problem,(More)
Harpin proteins are well known as eliciters that induce multiple responses in plants, such as systemic acquired resistance, hypersensitive response, enhancement of growth, resistance to the green peach aphid, and tolerance to drought. Overexpression of Harpin-encoding genes enhances plant resistance to diseases in tobacco, rice, rape, and cotton; however,(More)
Carbon nanotubes (CNT), with their applications in industry and medicine, may lead to new risks to human health. CNT induce a robust pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress in rodents. Realistic exposures to CNT may occur in conjunction with other pathogenic impacts (microbial infections) and trigger enhanced responses. We evaluated interactions between(More)