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Synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizer has played a key role in enhancing food production and keeping half of the world's population adequately fed. However, decades of N fertilizer overuse in many parts of the world have contributed to soil, water, and air pollution; reducing excessive N losses and emissions is a central environmental challenge in the 21st(More)
Agriculture faces great challenges to ensure global food security by increasing yields while reducing environmental costs. Here we address this challenge by conducting a total of 153 site-year field experiments covering the main agro-ecological areas for rice, wheat and maize production in China. A set of integrated soil-crop system management practices(More)
Support vector regression and regularization networks are kernel-based techniques for solving the regression problem of recovering the unknown function from sample data. The choice of the kernel function, which determines the mapping between the input space and the feature space, is of crucial importance to such learning machines. Estimating the irregular(More)
During the past 47 yr (1961-2007), Chinese cereal production has increased by 3.2-fold, successfully feeding 22% of the global human population with only 9% of the world's arable land, but at high environmental cost and resource consumption. Worse, crop production has been stagnant since 1996 while the population and demand for food continue to rise. New(More)
Regression methods are widely used to estimate the spectral reflectance of object surfaces from camera responses. These methods are under the same problem setting as that to build an estimation function for each sampled wavelength separately, which means that the accuracy of the spectral estimation will be reduced when the training set is small. To improve(More)
To achieve food and environmental security, closing the gap between actual and attainable N-use efficiency should be as important as closing yield gaps. Using a meta-analysis of 205 published studies from 317 study sites, including 1332 observations from rice, wheat, and maize system in China, reactive N (Nr) losses, and total N2O emissions from N(More)
The complement system plays an important role in innate and adaptive immunity, which suggests that complement activation could be exploited as a potential strategy for vaccine adjuvants. Here we explored the potential of chitosan-based microparticles (CS-NH2 MPs) as a vaccine adjuvant with an active surface for complement activation due to the abundance of(More)
Statins are a promising new strategy to prevent contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). In this study we compared the ameliorative effect of different statins in a rat model of CI-AKI. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups: control group; CI-AKI group; CI-AKI + rosuvastatin group (10 mg/kg/day); CI-AKI + simvastatin group (80 mg/kg/day);(More)
Surface-engineered particulate delivery systems for vaccine administration have been widely investigated in experimental and clinical studies. However, little is known about charge-coated microspheres as potential recombinant subunit protein antigen delivery systems in terms of adsorption and related immune responses. In the present study, cationic(More)