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Biodiesel has become more attractive recently because of its environmental benefits, and the fact that it is made from renewable resources. Generally speaking, biodiesel is prepared through transesterification of vegetable oils or animal fats with short chain alcohols. However, the lack of oil feedstocks limits the large-scale development of biodiesel to(More)
OBJECTIVE To demonstrate that alvimopan (6 or 12 mg) accelerates recovery of gastrointestinal (GI) function in patients undergoing laparotomy for bowel resection or radical hysterectomy. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA Postoperative ileus (POI) following laparotomy may increase morbidity and extend hospitalization. Opioids can contribute to the duration of POI.(More)
PURPOSE Postoperative ileus presents significant clinical challenges that potentially prolong hospital stay, contribute to readmission, and increase morbidity. There is no approved treatment for postoperative ileus. Alvimopan is a novel, peripherally acting, mu opioid receptor antagonist currently in development for the management of postoperative ileus. (More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the efficacy and safety of alvimopan, 12 mg, administered orally 30 to 90 minutes preoperatively and twice daily postoperatively in conjunction with a standardized accelerated postoperative care pathway for managing postoperative ileus after bowel resection. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS This multicenter, randomized,(More)
The large conductance calcium-sensitive potassium (BK) channel is widely expressed in many organs and tissues, but its in vivo physiological functions have not been fully defined. Here we report a genetic locus associated with a human syndrome of coexistent generalized epilepsy and paroxysmal dyskinesia on chromosome 10q22 and show that a mutation of the(More)
The precise roles of B cells in promoting the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes remain undefined. Here, we demonstrate that B cell depletion in mice can prevent or delay diabetes, reverse diabetes after frank hyperglycemia, and lead to the development of cells that suppress disease. To determine the efficacy and potential mechanism of therapeutic B cell(More)
In recent years, biological ways for biodiesel production have drawn an increasing attention and compared to chemical approaches, lipase-mediated alcoholysis for biodiesel production has many advantages. Currently, there are extensive reports about enzyme-mediated alcoholysis for biodiesel production, and based on the application forms of biocatalyst, the(More)
tert-Butanol has been developed as a novel reaction medium for lipase-mediated methanolysis of renewable oils for biodiesel production, in which lipase could maintain high catalytic activity, although the log P value of tert-butanol was just about 0.35. The related mechanism exploration has been carried out, and it has been proposed first in this manuscript(More)
Microbial lipid produced using yeast fermentation with inexpensive carbon sources such as lignocellulosic hydrolyzate can be an alternative feedstock for biodiesel production. Several inhibitors that can be generated during acid hydrolysis of lignocellulose were added solely or together into the culture medium to study their individual inhibitory actions(More)
New genes can originate by the combination of sequences from unrelated genes or their duplicates to form a chimeric structure. These chimeric genes often evolve rapidly, suggesting that they undergo adaptive evolution and may therefore be involved in novel phenotypes. Their functions, however, are rarely known. Here, we describe the phenotypic effects of a(More)