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In the mammalian olfactory bulb, signal processing is mediated by synaptic interactions between dendrites. Glutamate released from mitral cell dendrites excites dendritic spines of granule cells, which in turn release GABA back onto the mitral cell dendrites, forming a reciprocal synaptic pair. This feedback synaptic circuit was shown to be mediated(More)
Olfactory sensory neurons converge onto glomeruli in the olfactory bulb (OB) to form modular information processing units. Similar input modules are organized in translaminar columns for other sensory modalities. It has been less clear in the OB whether the initial modular organization relates to a columnar structure in the deeper layers involved in local(More)
A unique feature of the olfactory bulb circuit is the long projection of the mitral cell lateral dendrites. Through dendrodendritic reciprocal synapses, these dendrites connect one olfactory glomerular module to hundreds of others; but the functional principles governing these extensive lateral interactions remain largely unknown. Here we report that the(More)
BACKGROUND Resting-state fMRI is a novel approach to measure spontaneous brain activity in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Although most resting-state fMRI studies have focused on the examination of temporal correlations between low-frequency oscillations (LFOs), few studies have explored the amplitude of these LFOs in MDD. In this study, we(More)
Mammalian models of longevity are related primarily to caloric restriction and alterations in metabolism. We examined mice in which type 5 adenylyl cyclase (AC5) is knocked out (AC5 KO) and which are resistant to cardiac stress and have increased median lifespan of approximately 30%. AC5 KO mice are protected from reduced bone density and susceptibility to(More)
Olfactory glomeruli are the loci where the first odor-representation map emerges. The glomerular layer comprises exquisite local synaptic circuits for the processing of olfactory coding patterns immediately after their emergence. To understand how an odor map is transferred from afferent terminals to postsynaptic dendrites, it is essential to directly(More)
The primate temporal cortex has been demonstrated to play an important role in visual memory and pattern recognition. It is of particular interest to investigate whether activity-dependent modification of synaptic efficacy, a presumptive mechanism for learning and memory, is present in this cortical region. Here we address this issue by examining the(More)
The site of impulse initiation is crucial for the integrative actions of mammalian central neurons, but this question is currently controversial. Some recent studies support classical evidence that the impulse always arises in the soma-axon hillock region, with back-propagation through excitable dendrites, whereas others indicate that the dendrites are(More)
To obtain a more complete description of individual neurons, it is necessary to complement the electrical patch pipette measurements with technologies that permit a massive parallel recording from many sites on neuronal processes. This can be achieved by using voltage imaging with intracellular dyes. With this approach, we investigated the functional(More)
The mitral cell primary dendrite plays an important role in transmitting distal olfactory nerve input from olfactory glomerulus to the soma-axon initial segment. To understand how dendritic active properties are involved in this transmission, we have combined dual soma and dendritic patch recordings with computational modeling to analyze action-potential(More)