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Cyanobacterial aldehyde decarbonylases (ADs) catalyze the conversion of C(n) fatty aldehydes to formate (HCO(2)(-)) and the corresponding C(n-1) alk(a/e)nes. Previous studies of the Nostoc punctiforme (Np) AD produced in Escherichia coli (Ec) showed that this apparently hydrolytic reaction is actually a cryptically redox oxygenation process, in which one(More)
Isoprenoids are a class of natural products with more than 55,000 members. All isoprenoids are constructed from two precursors, isopentenyl diphosphate and its isomer dimethylallyl diphosphate. Two of the most important discoveries in isoprenoid biosynthetic studies in recent years are the elucidation of a second isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway [the(More)
The iron-dependent epoxidase HppE converts (S)-2-hydroxypropyl-1-phosphonate (S-HPP) to the antibiotic fosfomycin [(1R,2S)-epoxypropylphosphonate] in an unusual 1,3-dehydrogenation of a secondary alcohol to an epoxide. HppE has been classified as an oxidase, with proposed mechanisms differing primarily in the identity of the O2-derived iron complex that(More)
UDP-galactopyranose mutase (UGM) requires reduced FAD (FAD(red)) to catalyze the reversible interconversion of UDP-galactopyranose (UDP-Galp) and UDP-galactofuranose (UDP-Galf). Recent structural and mechanistic studies of UGM have provided evidence for the existence of an FAD-Galf/p adduct as an intermediate in the catalytic cycle. These findings are(More)
AIM This study aimed to examine the causal relationship between adipokines released from visceral fat and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction in the state of obesity inflammation. MAIN METHODS Adipose tissue and adipocyte conditioned medium were obtained from epididymal fat of B6 mice on regular or high fat diet for 16 weeks. The latter were classified into two(More)
Cyanobacterial aldehyde-deformylating oxygenases (ADOs) belong to the ferritin-like diiron-carboxylate superfamily of dioxygen-activating proteins. They catalyze conversion of saturated or monounsaturated C(n) fatty aldehydes to formate and the corresponding C(n-1) alkanes or alkenes, respectively. This unusual, apparently redox-neutral transformation(More)
This paper is about multiple-F0 tracking and the estimation of the number of harmonic source streams in music sound signals. A source stream is understood as generated from a note played by a musical instrument. A note is described by a hidden Markov model (HMM) having two states: the attack state and the sustain state. It is proposed to first perform the(More)
Isoprenoids are one of the largest classes of natural products and all of them are constructed from two precursors, isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and its isomer dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). For decades, the mevalonic acid (MVA) pathway was proposed to be the only IPP and DMAPP biosynthetic pathway. This review summarizes the newly discovered IPP and(More)
Iron-dependent halogenases employ cis-halo-Fe(IV)-oxo (haloferryl) complexes to functionalize unactivated aliphatic carbon centers, a capability elusive to synthetic chemists. Halogenation requires (i) coordination of a halide anion (Cl(-) or Br(-)) to the enzyme's Fe(II) cofactor, (ii) coupled activation of O2 and decarboxylation of α-ketoglutarate to(More)