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Lactobacillus fermentum is found in fermented foods and thought to be harmless. In vivo and clinical studies indicate that some L. fermentum strains have beneficial properties, particularly for gastrointestinal health. However, L. fermentum AGR1487 decreases trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER), a measure of intestinal barrier integrity. The(More)
Ruminant livestock are important sources of human food and global greenhouse gas emissions. Feed degradation and methane formation by ruminants rely on metabolic interactions between rumen microbes and affect ruminant productivity. Rumen and camelid foregut microbial community composition was determined in 742 samples from 32 animal species and 35(More)
The effects of short-term (5-week) exposure to wet or dry diets on fecal bacterial populations in the cat were investigated. Sixteen mixed-sex, neutered, domestic short-haired cats (mean age = 6 years; mean bodyweight = 3.4 kg) were randomly allocated to wet or dry diets in a crossover design. Fecal bacterial DNA was isolated and bacterial 16S rRNA gene(More)
Consumption of high-fat diets has negative impacts on health and well-being, some of which may be epigenetically regulated. Selenium and folate are two compounds which influence epigenetic mechanisms. We investigated the hypothesis that post-weaning supplementation with adequate levels of selenium and folate in offspring of female mice fed a high-fat, low(More)
Thymic induction of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells relies on CD28 costimulation and high-affinity T-cell receptor (TCR) signals, whereas Foxp3 (forkhead box P3) induction on activated peripheral CD4(+) T cells is inhibited by these signals. Accordingly, the inhibitory molecule CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4) promoted, but was not(More)
The effects of pre- (i.e., gestation and during lactation) and post-weaning diet on the composition of faecal bacterial communities and adipose expression of key genes in the glucose and insulin pathways were investigated in the cat. Queens were maintained on a moderate protein:fat:carbohydrate kibbled ("Diet A"; 35:20:28% DM; n  =  4) or high(More)
In addition to their role in absorption and secretion, epithelial cells play an important role in the protection of the colon mucosa from the resident microbiota and are important for the maintenance of homeostasis. Microarray analysis of intact colon samples is widely used to gain an overview of the cellular pathways and processes that are active in the(More)
Human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal disease where the resident microbiota contributes to disease development, yet the specific mechanisms remain unclear. Interleukin-10 gene-deficient (Il10-/-) mice develop inflammation similar to IBD, due in part to an inappropriate response to commensal bacteria. We have previously reported(More)
Sialic acids are monosaccharides typically found on cell surfaces and attached to soluble proteins, or as essential components of ganglioside structures that play a critical role in brain development and neural transmission. Human milk also contains sialic acid conjugated to oligosaccharides, glycolipids, and glycoproteins. These nutrients can reach the(More)
Results from large multicentre epidemiological studies suggest an association between the consumption of raw milk and a reduced incidence of allergy and asthma in children. Although the underlying mechanisms for this association are yet to be confirmed, researchers have investigated whether bacteria or bacterial components that naturally occur in cow's milk(More)