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Synaptojanin is a nerve terminal protein of relative molecular mass 145,000 which appears to participate with dynamin in synaptic vesicle recycling. The central region of synaptojanin defines it as a member of the inositol-5-phosphatase family, which includes the product of the gene that is defective in the oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe. Synaptojanin(More)
We examined the effects of 3 neuropeptides and the bioactive amine 5-HT on identified motoneurons (B15 and B16) and interneurons (B4, B5) involved in the control of feeding behavior in Aplysia californica. The application of egg-laying hormone (ELH), small cardioactive peptide b (SCPb), and 5-HT elicits distinct patterns of synaptically induced bursting in(More)
Studies on various forms of synaptic plasticity have shown a link between messenger RNA translation, learning and memory. Like memory, synaptic plasticity includes an early phase that depends on modification of pre-existing proteins, and a late phase that requires transcription and synthesis of new proteins. Activation of postsynaptic targets seems to(More)
At nondepressed Aplysia sensory to motor synapses, serotonin (5-HT) facilitates transmitter release primarily through a protein kinase A pathway. In contrast, at depressed Aplysia sensory to motor synapses, 5-HT facilitates transmitter release primarily through a protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent pathway. It is known that only two phorbol ester-activated PKC(More)
The late phase of long-term potentiation (LTP) and memory (LTM) requires new gene expression, but the molecular mechanisms that underlie these processes are not fully understood. Phosphorylation of eIF2alpha inhibits general translation but selectively stimulates translation of ATF4, a repressor of CREB-mediated late-LTP (L-LTP) and LTM. We used a(More)
Schwann cells express low levels of myelin proteins in the absence of neurons. When Schwann cells and neurons are cultured together the production of myelin proteins is elevated, and myelin is formed. For peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22), the exact amount of protein produced is critical, because peripheral neuropathies result from its underexpression or(More)
Long-lasting forms of synaptic plasticity and memory are dependent on new protein synthesis. Recent advances obtained from genetic, physiological, pharmacological, and biochemical studies provide strong evidence that translational control plays a key role in regulating long-term changes in neural circuits and thus long-term modifications in behavior.(More)
Ca(2+)-activated and Ca(2+)-independent protein kinase Cs (PKCs) are present in the nervous system of the marine mollusk Aplysia californica (Kruger et al., 1991). Sensitizing stimuli or application of the facilitatory transmitter 5-HT to intact isolated ganglia produces the presynaptic facilitation of sensory-to-motor neuron synapses that underlies(More)
We investigated activation of the two major neuronal protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms in Aplysia, Ca(2+)-activated Apl I and Ca(2+)-independent Apl II, during the induction and maintenance of behavioral sensitization of Aplysia defensive reflexes. Activation of PKC occurred during the training stimulus and persisted for at least 2 hr thereafter but was not(More)
Protein kinase Cs (PKCs) are important effectors of synaptic plasticity. In Aplysia, there are two major phorbol ester-activated PKCs, Ca2+-activated PKC Apl I and Ca2+-independent PKC Apl II. Functional Apl II, but not Apl I, in sensory neurons is required for a form of short-term facilitation induced at sensorimotor synapses by the facilitatory(More)