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The GvH reaction resulting from the injection of parental strain cells into adult F1 hybrids suppresses both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses and is dependent on the donor-host combination and the number of parental cells used to induce the GvH reaction. The early suppression is due, at least in part, to the increased number of macrophages and the(More)
In this report we have investigated macrophage (M phi) activity and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production during graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD). TNF-alpha production by M phi requires two signals: priming of M phi by interferon followed by triggering of TNF-alpha production and release by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The state of M phi activation(More)
We present evidence that tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is transiently expressed at specific times during embryogenesis in precisely defined areas of the nervous system in two different classes of vertebrates. In murine embryos, TNF-alpha was detected in the brain, neural tube and peripheral mixed spinal nerves. In the chick embryo, TNF-alpha was(More)
Mild, moderate, and severe graft-versus-host (GVH) reactions were induced in four series of experiments in 71 CBA X A and C57BL/6 X A F1 hybrid mice. At regular intervals post-GVH reaction induction (Days 4-42), the animals were sacrificed, autopsied, and histologically studied. Visceral alterations of GVH reaction were recorded in the spleen, lymph nodes,(More)
The deregulation of the immune response is a critical component in inflammatory disease. Recent in vitro data show that T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TC-PTP) is a negative regulator of cytokine signaling. Furthermore, tc-ptp(-/-) mice display immune defects and die within 5 weeks of birth. We report here that tc-ptp(-/-) mice develop progressive(More)
The injection of parental strain cells into adrenalectomized (CBA x A)F1 mice induced a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction which was morphologically characterized by thymus epithelial cell injury but not stress-related thymic involution. Thymocytes from mice undergoing a GVH reaction were studied for their ability to reconstitute allograft reactivity in(More)
In four separate experiments 140 adults A(H-2a) x C57BL/6(H-2b) F1hybrid mice were surgically adrenalectomized and divided into three experimental groups. Seventy-one additional adult F1hybrids (AXC57BL/6) which had not been adrenalectomized were divided into three similar groups. In Group 1 (GvH group), GvH reactions were induced by the injection of 50 x(More)
In early embryo loss, the activation of maternal immune effector mechanisms play a critical role in determining the success or failure of a pregnancy. We have previously shown that increased nitric oxide production by decidual macrophages is involved in early embryo loss occurring at day 12 of gestation. In this study, using reverse transcription-PCR and(More)