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This article is a theoretical and empil#cal analysis of the construct of collective teacher e ff}'cacjz l*Trsl, a model o/" collective e/'fi'cacy was elaborated for use in schools. 7ben, an operatio~Tal measure qf colleclive teacher e./.'/'i-cacy was developed, tested, and./bund to have strong reliability and reasonable validity. Finally, using the(More)
Note: This article was published in the Review of Educational Research (RER), and copyright is retained by the American Educational Research Association, which publishes RER. Academic publishers allow authors to post material on web servers without permission, but users are asked not to copy or repost the material without permission from the appropriate(More)
This analysis synthesizes existing research to discuss how teachers' practice and student learning are affected by perceptions of collective efficacy. Social cognitive theory is employed to explain that the choices teachers make—the ways in which they exercise personal agency—are strongly influenced by collective efficacy beliefs. Although empirically(More)
In many fields such as city administration and facilities management, there are increasing requests for a Geographic Information Systein (GIs) that provides automated mapping functions to users. Especially , some mechanism for displaying 3D views of an urban scene is eagerly expected because it allows construction of an intuitive and understandable(More)
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