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—We describe a novel restoration strategy called virtual protection cycles (cycles , patents pending) for extremely fast restoration in IP networks. Originally conceived for use in WDM and Sonet transport networks, we outline the adaption of the-cycle concept to an IP environment. In an IP router-based network ,-cycles are implemented with virtual circuits(More)
—Recent work on restorable networks has shown experimentally that one can support 100% restoration with an optimized set of closed cycles of spare capacity while requiring little or no increase in spare capacity relative to a span-restorable mesh network. This is important and unexpected because it implies that future restoration schemes could be as(More)
— We study an idea for efficient integrated protection of an IP over WDM network using the spare capacity of span-protecting p-cycles to provide protection against both optical link failures and router node failures in the IP/MPLS layer. Previously, networks using span-protecting p-cycles were designed from the point of view of a single-layer physical(More)
—The most common aim in designing a survivable network is to achieve restorability against all single span failures, with a minimal investment in spare capacity. This leaves dual-failure situations as the main factor to consider in quantifying how the availability of services benefit from the investment in restorability. We approach the question in part(More)
Outpatient video-electroencephalography (OVEEG) was performed in 100 infants, children, and adolescents with diagnosed (group I, n = 64) or suspected (group II, n = 36) epilepsy. Median monitoring duration was 4 hours. Indications for OVEEG in group I were classification of seizures, reported seizure exacerbation, or onset of new signs. OVEEG indications in(More)