Learn More
Pathological disturbances of mood may follow a 'bipolar' course, in which normal moods alternate with both depression and mania, or a 'unipolar' course, in which only depression occurs. Both bipolar and unipolar disorders can be heritable illnesses associated with neurochemical, neuroendocrine and autonomic abnormalities. The neurobiological basis for these(More)
There is at present limited understanding of the neurobiological basis of the different processes underlying emotion perception. We have aimed to identify potential neural correlates of three processes suggested by appraisalist theories as important for emotion perception: 1) the identification of the emotional significance of a stimulus; 2) the production(More)
The neural networks that putatively modulate aspects of normal emotional behavior have been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders by converging evidence from neuroimaging, neuropathological and lesion analysis studies. These networks involve the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and closely related areas in the medial and caudolateral orbital(More)
Neuroimaging studies of major depression have identified neurophysiologic abnormalities in multiple areas of the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex, the amygdala, and related parts of the striatum and thalamus. Some of these abnormalities appear mood state-dependent and are located in regions where cerebral blood flow increases during normal and other(More)
To date, there has been little investigation of the neurobiological basis of emotion processing abnormalities in psychiatric populations. We have previously discussed two neural systems: 1) a ventral system, including the amygdala, insula, ventral striatum, ventral anterior cingulate gyrus, and prefrontal cortex, for identification of the emotional(More)
BACKGROUND Studies in experimental animals have implicated the mesolimbic dopaminergic projections into the ventral striatum in the neural processes underlying behavioral reinforcement and motivated behavior; however, understanding the relationship between subjective emotional experience and ventral striatal dopamine (DA) release has awaited human studies.(More)
Mood disorders are among the most common neuropsychiatric illnesses, yet little is known about their neurobiology. Recent neuroimaging studies have found that the volume of the subgenual part of Brodmann's area 24 (sg24) is reduced in familial forms of major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). In this histological study, we used unbiased(More)
In this study, we examined the impact of goal-directed processing on the response to emotional pictures and the impact of emotional pictures on goal-directed processing. Subjects (N=22) viewed neutral or emotional pictures in the presence or absence of a demanding cognitive task. Goal-directed processing disrupted the BOLD response to emotional pictures. In(More)
BACKGROUND Amygdala hemodynamic responses to positive stimuli are attenuated in major depressive disorder (MDD), and normalize with remission. Real-time functional MRI neurofeedback (rtfMRI-nf) offers a non-invasive method to modulate this regional activity. We examined whether depressed participants can use rtfMRI-nf to enhance amygdala responses to(More)
The functional neuroanatomy of unipolar major depression was investigated using positron emission tomography to measure differences in regional cerebral blood flow (BF). A relatively homogeneous subject group was obtained using criteria for familial pure depressive disease (FPDD), which are based upon family history as well as upon symptoms and course.(More)