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Phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinases are lipid kinases with important roles in neoplasia. Recently, a very high frequency of somatic mutations in PIK3CA has been reported among a large series of colorectal cancers. However, the relevance of PIK3CA mutation in other cancer types remains unclear because of the limited number of tumors investigated. We have(More)
Ovarian cancer is the major cause of death from gynecological malignancy, and there is an urgent need for new therapeutic targets. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway has been strongly implicated in the genesis of ovarian cancer. However, to identify and evaluate potential targets for therapeutic intervention, it is critical to understand(More)
UNLABELLED KRAS mutation is a hallmark of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) but remains an intractable pharmacologic target. Consequently, defining RAS effector pathway(s) required for PDA initiation and maintenance is critical to improve treatment of this disease. Here, we show that expression of BRAF(V600E), but not PIK3CA(H1047R), in the mouse(More)
Oesophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) incidence is rapidly increasing in Western countries. A better understanding of EAC underpins efforts to improve early detection and treatment outcomes. While large EAC exome sequencing efforts to date have found recurrent loss-of-function mutations, oncogenic driving events have been underrepresented. Here we use a(More)
Sprouty (Spry) proteins were found to be endogenous inhibitors of the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway that play an important role in the remodeling of branching tissues. We investigated Spry expression levels in various cancers and found that Spry1 and Spry2 were down-regulated consistently in breast cancers. Such prevalent patterns of(More)
Molecular subtypes of serous ovarian cancer have been recently described. Using data from independent datasets including over 900 primary tumour samples, we show that deregulation of the Let-7 pathway is specifically associated with the C5 molecular subtype of serous ovarian cancer. DNA copy number and gene expression of HMGA2, alleles of Let-7, LIN28,(More)
Breast cancer is the most frequent cancer in women and consists of heterogeneous types of tumours that are classified into different histological and molecular subtypes. PIK3CA and P53 (also known as TP53) are the two most frequently mutated genes and are associated with different types of human breast cancers. The cellular origin and the mechanisms leading(More)
Malignant melanoma is frequently driven by mutational activation of v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) accompanied by silencing of the phosphatase and tensin homology (PTEN) tumor suppressor. Despite the implied importance of PI3K signaling in PTENNull melanomas, mutational activation of the gene encoding the catalytic subunit of PI3Kα(More)
The molecular mechanism underlying the development of Barrett's esophagus (BE), the precursor to esophageal adenocarcinoma, remains unknown. Our previous work implicated sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling as a possible driver of BE and suggested that bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4) and Sox9 were downstream mediators. We have utilized a novel in vivo tissue(More)
The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K-PKB), mitogen activated protein kinase (MEK-ERK) and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR- p70S6K), are thought to regulate many aspects of tumour cell proliferation and survival. We have examined the utilisation of these three signalling pathways in a number of cell lines derived from patients with metastatic(More)