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The biological impacts of the Fukushima nuclear accident on the pale grass blue butterfly
TLDR
It is concluded that artificial radionuclides from the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant caused physiological and genetic damage to the pale grass blue Zizeeria maha, a common lycaenid butterfly in Japan.
The Fukushima nuclear accident and the pale grass blue butterfly: evaluating biological effects of long-term low-dose exposures
TLDR
The pale grass blue butterfly Zizeeria maha is vulnerable to long-term low-dose internal and external exposures; however, insect cells are known to be resistant to short-term high-dose irradiation.
Fukushima's biological impacts: the case of the pale grass blue butterfly.
TLDR
It is proposed that the collection of phenotypic data from the field and their relevant reproduction in the laboratory should be the basis of experimental design to demonstrate the biological effects of environmental pollutants and to investigate the molecular mechanisms responsible for these effects.
Spatiotemporal abnormality dynamics of the pale grass blue butterfly: three years of monitoring (2011–2013) after the Fukushima nuclear accident
TLDR
An occurrence and an accumulation of adverse physiological and genetic effects in early generations are demonstrated, followed by their decrease and leveling off at a normal level, providing the most comprehensive record of biological dynamics after a nuclear accident available today.
Color-Pattern Evolution in Response to Environmental Stress in Butterflies
TLDR
Three cases in butterflies suggest that phenotypic plasticity plays an important role in butterfly wing color-pattern evolution, and that a neutral or non-functional trait can be assimilated genetically if it is linked, like a parasitic trait, with another functional trait.
The biological impacts of ingested radioactive materials on the pale grass blue butterfly
TLDR
It is concluded that the risk of ingesting a polluted diet is realistic, at least for this butterfly, and likely for certain other organisms living in the polluted area.
Ingestion of radioactively contaminated diets for two generations in the pale grass blue butterfly
TLDR
Biological effects are detectable under a low ingested dose of radioactivity from a contaminated diet, but can be overcome by ingesting a non-contaminated diet, suggesting that at least some of the observed effects are attributable to non-genetic physiological changes.
Ingestional and transgenerational effects of the Fukushima nuclear accident on the pale grass blue butterfly
TLDR
These findings indicate high impacts of early exposure and transgenerationally accumulated radiation effects over a specific period; however, the population regained normality relatively quickly after ∼15 generations within 3 years.
Current Status of the Blue Butterfly in Fukushima Research
TLDR
Because the high morphological abnormality rate and small body size detected in Fukushima in 2011 have already ceased, likely through adaptive evolution, their present geographical distributions were investigated throughout Japan, supporting the causal involvement of the accident.
Body size distributions of the pale grass blue butterfly in Japan: Size rules and the status of the Fukushima population
TLDR
The converse Bergmann’s rule and the temperature-size rule coexist in this multivoltine species and supports the idea that the size reduction observed only in Fukushima Prefecture in 2011 was caused by the environmental stress of radioactive pollution.
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