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Choosing an action that leads to a desired goal requires an understanding of the linkages between actions and their outcomes. We investigated neural mechanisms of such goal-based action selection. We trained monkeys on a task in which the relation between visual cues, action types, and reward conditions changed regularly, such that the monkeys selected(More)
Hic-5 is a focal adhesion protein belonging to the paxillin LIM family that shuttles in and out of the nucleus. In the present study, we examined the expression of Hic-5 among mouse tissues by immunohistochemistry and found its expression only in smooth-muscle cells in several tissues. This result is consistent with a previous report on adult human tissues(More)
We can discriminate visual objects at multiple levels, from coarse categorization to individual identification. It is not known how the brain adapts to the varying levels of discrimination required in different behavioral contexts. In the present study, we investigated whether the stimulus selectivity of neuronal responses in the monkey inferotemporal(More)
We analysed the regeneration process of Magnolia obovata using polymorphic microsatellite markers. Eighty-three adult trees standing in a watershed covering an area of 69 ha, and saplings collected from a smaller research plot (6 ha) located at the centre of the watershed were genotyped using microsatellite markers. Among 91 saplings analysed, 24 (26%) had(More)
Hic-5, a member of the paxillin family of adaptor molecules, is localized at focal adhesion and implicated in integrin-mediated signaling. Hic-5 and paxillin exhibit structural homology and share interacting factors, however, diverse functions are suggested for them. In this study, we carried out yeast two-hybrid screening to identify Hic-5 interacting(More)
Diffuse flash stimuli applied to the ocular fundus evoke light reflectance decreases of the fundus illuminated with infrared observation light. This phenomenon, which is independent of the photopigment bleaching observed as an increase in the reflectance of visible light, is called intrinsic signals. Intrinsic signals, in general, are stimulus-evoked light(More)
Molecular metals normally require charge transfer between two different chemical species. We prepared crystals of [Ni(tmdt)2] (tmdt, trimethylenetetrathiafulvalenedithiolate) and carried out crystal structure analyses and resistivity measurements. The analyses and measurements revealed that these single-component molecular crystals are metallic from room(More)
Visual expertise in discriminating fine differences among a group of similar objects can be obtained through extensive long-term training. Here we investigated the neural bases of this superior capability. The inferotemporal cortex, located at the final stage along the ventral visual pathway, was a candidate site in monkeys because cells there respond to(More)
PURPOSE Various methods have been used to obtain a topographic map of bleached photopigments in human retinas in the past. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the bleaching topography of the photoreceptors could be obtained by snapshot imaging reflectometry. METHODS Four to five fundus photographs of one rhesus monkey and three healthy(More)