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Choosing an action that leads to a desired goal requires an understanding of the linkages between actions and their outcomes. We investigated neural mechanisms of such goal-based action selection. We trained monkeys on a task in which the relation between visual cues, action types, and reward conditions changed regularly, such that the monkeys selected(More)
We can discriminate visual objects at multiple levels, from coarse categorization to individual identification. It is not known how the brain adapts to the varying levels of discrimination required in different behavioral contexts. In the present study, we investigated whether the stimulus selectivity of neuronal responses in the monkey inferotemporal(More)
Impairment of insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in the Tsumura Suzuki obese diabetic mouse: a new genetic animal model of type 2 diabetes Abstract Background: In skeletal muscle and adipocytes, insulin-stimulated glucose transport has been known to occur through the translocation of glucose transporter (GLUT) 4(More)
Diffuse flash stimuli applied to the ocular fundus evoke light reflectance decreases of the fundus illuminated with infrared observation light. This phenomenon, which is independent of the photopigment bleaching observed as an increase in the reflectance of visible light, is called intrinsic signals. Intrinsic signals, in general, are stimulus-evoked light(More)
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) control the expressions of many genes involved in bone formation. On the basis of our hypothesis that BMP2 stimulation-regulated gene expression plays a critical role in osteoblast differentiation, we performed genome-wide screening of messenger RNA from BMP2-treated and -untreated C2C12 cells using a DNA microarray(More)
Visual expertise in discriminating fine differences among a group of similar objects can be obtained through extensive long-term training. Here we investigated the neural bases of this superior capability. The inferotemporal cortex, located at the final stage along the ventral visual pathway, was a candidate site in monkeys because cells there respond to(More)
PURPOSE Various methods have been used to obtain a topographic map of bleached photopigments in human retinas in the past. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the bleaching topography of the photoreceptors could be obtained by snapshot imaging reflectometry. METHODS Four to five fundus photographs of one rhesus monkey and three healthy(More)
An initial activation signal via the TCR in a restricted cytokine environment is critical for the onset of Th cell development. Cytokines regulate the expression of key transcriptional factors, T-bet and GATA-3, which instruct the direction of Th1 and Th2 differentiation, through changes in chromatin conformation. In this study, we investigated the kinetics(More)
PURPOSE To investigate the properties and origin of retinal intrinsic signals by functional optical coherence tomography (fOCT) in macaque retinas. METHODS We modified a spectral domain OCT system to be able to give short-duration flashes or continuous light stimulation to the retina of three adult macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta) under general(More)
NODULE INCEPTION (NIN) is a key regulator of the symbiotic nitrogen fixation pathway in legumes including Lotus japonicus. NIN-like proteins (NLPs), which are presumably present in all land plants, were recently identified as key transcription factors in nitrate signaling and responses in Arabidopsis thaliana, a non-leguminous plant. Here we show that both(More)