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In order to examine the effect of HTLV-I proviral load on the pathogenesis of HAM/TSP, we measured the HTLV-I proviral load in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from a large number of HAM/TSP patients and asymptomatic HTLV-I carriers. To measure the proviral load, we used an accurate and reproducible quantitative PCR method using a dual-labeled(More)
The risk of disease associated with persistent virus infections such as HIV-I, hepatitis B and C, and human T-lymphotropic virus-I (HTLV-I) is strongly determined by the virus load. However, it is not known whether a persistent class I HLA-restricted antiviral cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response reduces viral load and is therefore beneficial or causes(More)
HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is one outcome of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) infection. It remains unknown why the majority of infected people remain healthy, whereas only approximately 2-3% of infected individuals develop the disease. The active form of vitamin D has immunomodulatory effects, and(More)
Spike synchronization underlies information processing and storage in the brain. But how can neurons synchronize in a noisy network? By exploiting a high-speed (500-2,000 fps) multineuron imaging technique and a large-scale synapse mapping method, we directly compared spontaneous activity patterns and anatomical connectivity in hippocampal CA3 networks ex(More)
Human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) provirus load has been reported to be generally higher in patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) than in asymptomatic HTLV-I carriers (ACs). However, some ACs have a high HTLV-I provirus load comparable with that in patients with HAM/TSP. To examine whether other(More)
A pair of monozygotic twins concordant for juvenile Parkinsonism are described. These twin sisters have lived together until 18 years old. Twin A noted tremor in the right hand and right-sided stiffness and slowness at the age 20. Initially, a marked improvement was shown with L-dopa treatment. However, one year after the beginning of treatment,(More)
Can neuronal networks produce patterns of activity with millisecond accuracy? It may seem unlikely, considering the probabilistic nature of synaptic transmission. However, some theories of brain function predict that such precision is feasible and can emerge from the non-linearity of the action potential generation in circuits of connected neurons. Several(More)
The brain is self-writable; as the brain voluntarily adapts itself to a changing environment, the neural circuitry rearranges its functional connectivity by referring to its own activity. How the internal activity modifies synaptic weights is largely unknown, however. Here we report that spontaneous activity causes complex reorganization of synaptic(More)
We show that an iterative demodulation with soft-decision feedback information from FEC de-coder can efficiently mitigate cycle slips. With 3% pilot insertion, the turbo QPSK demodulation achieves 1.05dB gain even in the presence of frequent cycle slips. This work may not be copied or reproduced in whole or in part for any commercial purpose. Permission to(More)
Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) has been reported to be expressed in various inflammatory disorders including human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). HTLV-I-infected T-cells expressed high levels of MMP-9 via viral transactivator Tax mediated activation of the MMP-9 promoter. To(More)