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In order to examine the effect of HTLV-I proviral load on the pathogenesis of HAM/TSP, we measured the HTLV-I proviral load in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from a large number of HAM/TSP patients and asymptomatic HTLV-I carriers. To measure the proviral load, we used an accurate and reproducible quantitative PCR method using a dual-labeled(More)
The regulation of tyrosine phosphorylation and associated signalling through antigen, growth-factor and cytokine receptors is mediated by the reciprocal activities of protein tyrosine kinases and protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases). The transmembrane PTPase CD45 is a key regulator of antigen receptor signalling in T and B cells. Src-family kinases have(More)
Spike synchronization underlies information processing and storage in the brain. But how can neurons synchronize in a noisy network? By exploiting a high-speed (500-2,000 fps) multineuron imaging technique and a large-scale synapse mapping method, we directly compared spontaneous activity patterns and anatomical connectivity in hippocampal CA3 networks ex(More)
The brain is self-writable; as the brain voluntarily adapts itself to a changing environment, the neural circuitry rearranges its functional connectivity by referring to its own activity. How the internal activity modifies synaptic weights is largely unknown, however. Here we report that spontaneous activity causes complex reorganization of synaptic(More)
Can neuronal networks produce patterns of activity with millisecond accuracy? It may seem unlikely, considering the probabilistic nature of synaptic transmission. However, some theories of brain function predict that such precision is feasible and can emerge from the non-linearity of the action potential generation in circuits of connected neurons. Several(More)
We show that an iterative demodulation with soft-decision feedback information from FEC de-coder can efficiently mitigate cycle slips. With 3% pilot insertion, the turbo QPSK demodulation achieves 1.05dB gain even in the presence of frequent cycle slips. This work may not be copied or reproduced in whole or in part for any commercial purpose. Permission to(More)
Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) has been reported to be expressed in various inflammatory disorders including human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). HTLV-I-infected T-cells expressed high levels of MMP-9 via viral transactivator Tax mediated activation of the MMP-9 promoter. To(More)
HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is one outcome of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) infection. It remains unknown why the majority of infected people remain healthy, whereas only approximately 2-3% of infected individuals develop the disease. The active form of vitamin D has immunomodulatory effects, and(More)