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In order to examine the effect of HTLV-I proviral load on the pathogenesis of HAM/TSP, we measured the HTLV-I proviral load in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from a large number of HAM/TSP patients and asymptomatic HTLV-I carriers. To measure the proviral load, we used an accurate and reproducible quantitative PCR method using a dual-labeled(More)
The risk of disease associated with persistent virus infections such as HIV-I, hepatitis B and C, and human T-lymphotropic virus-I (HTLV-I) is strongly determined by the virus load. However, it is not known whether a persistent class I HLA-restricted antiviral cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response reduces viral load and is therefore beneficial or causes(More)
Three adult patients (38-year-old male, 86-year-old female, and 61-year-old male) in a family with mucolipidosis III (ML-III) were described. They had characteristic features of ML-III and they survived a long time. N-acetylglucosaminyl 1-phosphotransferase activity was low in fibroblasts of a patient, but its residual activity remained at a relatively high(More)
Spike synchronization underlies information processing and storage in the brain. But how can neurons synchronize in a noisy network? By exploiting a high-speed (500-2,000 fps) multineuron imaging technique and a large-scale synapse mapping method, we directly compared spontaneous activity patterns and anatomical connectivity in hippocampal CA3 networks ex(More)
HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is one outcome of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) infection. It remains unknown why the majority of infected people remain healthy, whereas only approximately 2-3% of infected individuals develop the disease. The active form of vitamin D has immunomodulatory effects, and(More)
We report the clinical, electrophysiological, and pathological findings of two unrelated Japanese families with hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) and confirm the findings of a deletion of peripheral myelin protein-22 (PMP-22) gene. Electrophysiological studies revealed slowing of nerve conduction velocities of the affected(More)
Human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) provirus load has been reported to be generally higher in patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) than in asymptomatic HTLV-I carriers (ACs). However, some ACs have a high HTLV-I provirus load comparable with that in patients with HAM/TSP. To examine whether other(More)
The brain is self-writable; as the brain voluntarily adapts itself to a changing environment, the neural circuitry rearranges its functional connectivity by referring to its own activity. How the internal activity modifies synaptic weights is largely unknown, however. Here we report that spontaneous activity causes complex reorganization of synaptic(More)
Can neuronal networks produce patterns of activity with millisecond accuracy? It may seem unlikely, considering the probabilistic nature of synaptic transmission. However, some theories of brain function predict that such precision is feasible and can emerge from the non-linearity of the action potential generation in circuits of connected neurons. Several(More)
Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) has been reported to be expressed in various inflammatory disorders including human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). HTLV-I-infected T-cells expressed high levels of MMP-9 via viral transactivator Tax mediated activation of the MMP-9 promoter. To(More)