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The development of a rapid and efficient system to identify human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals with broad and potent HIV-1-specific neutralizing antibody responses is an important step toward the discovery of critical neutralization targets for rational AIDS vaccine design. In this study, samples from HIV-1-infected volunteers(More)
OBJECTIVE To identify and describe populations at risk for HIV in 3 clinical research centers in Kenya and South Africa. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. METHODS Volunteers reporting recent sexual activity, multiple partners, transactional sex, sex with an HIV-positive partner, or, if male, sex with men (MSM; in Kenya only) were enrolled. Sexually(More)
A study of the natural history of sickle hemoglobinopathies was begun in March 1979. By August 1987, a total of 2824 patients less than 20 years of age were enrolled. There have been 14,670 person-years of follow-up. Seventy-three deaths have occurred. Most of the deaths were in patients with hemoglobin SS. The peak incidence of death was between 1 and 3(More)
Esophageal Doppler ultrasonography offers a continuous and noninvasive alternative to standard thermodilution cardiac output monitoring. A total of 372 simultaneous measurements of Doppler and thermodilution cardiac output were compared in 16 patients undergoing cardiac surgery. In addition, echocardiographic aortic diameter measurement, necessary for(More)
Vaccination can have important indirect effects on the spread of an infectious agent by reducing the level of infectiousness of vaccinees who become infected. To estimate the effect of vaccination on infectiousness, one typically requires data on the contacts between susceptible and infected vaccinated and unvaccinated people. As an alternative, we propose(More)
This paper summarizes the proceedings of an NIAID-sponsored workshop on statistical issues for HIV surrogate endpoints. The workshop brought together statisticians and clinicians in an attempt to shed light on some unresolved issues in the use of HIV laboratory markers (such as HIV RNA and CD4+ cell counts) in the design and analysis of clinical studies and(More)
There has been considerable debate over what evidence from preclinical and clinical studies is required to advance an HIV vaccine candidate to phase III efficacy testing. Given this situation, conduct of intermediate-size trials is proposed as a method for assessing the plausibility that a vaccine candidate would prevent chronic HIV infection. Designed to(More)
While the long-term goal is to develop highly effective AIDS vaccines, first generation vaccines may be only partially effective. Other HIV prevention modalities such as preexposure prophylaxis with antiretrovirals (PrEP) may have limited efficacy as well. The combined administration of vaccine and PrEP (VAXPREP), however, may have a synergistic effect(More)
Kenneth Mayer and Chris Beyrer’s Comment (July 27, p 287) on WHO’s new guidelines for antiretroviral therapy frames as all but inevitable “treatment as prevention”, now embraced by WHO. Absent from the gathering momentum for massive expansion of antiretroviral drug use is discussion of at least three important issues. First, problems of delivery of and(More)