Washingtone Ochieng

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Recently increased availability of anti-retroviral therapy (ART) has mitigated HIV-1/AIDS prognoses especially in resource poor settings. The emergence of ART resistance-associated mutations from non-suppressive ART has been implicated as a major cause of ART failure. Reverse transcriptase inhibitor (RTI)-resistance mutations among 12 non-subtype B(More)
There is a continuous need to genetically characterize the HIV strains in circulation in order to assess interventions and inform vaccine discovery. We partially sequenced the envelope C2V3 gene from a total of 59 Kenyan patients on highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) and determined HIV subtypes using both the JPHMM subtyping tool and the(More)
BACKGROUND Worldwide access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in low- and middle-income countries has significantly increased. Although this presents better treatment options for HIV-infected individuals, the challenge of monitoring ART in these settings still remains. OBJECTIVE To investigate efficient and cost-effective criteria for assessing ART failure(More)
Monitoring the distribution of HIV-1 subtypes and recombinants among infected individuals has become a priority in HIV therapy. A laboratory analysis of samples collected from HIV-positive patients attending an STI clinic in Nairobi was done between March and May 2004. PCR was carried out on pol (intergrase) and env (C2V3) regions and resulting data on the(More)
BACKGROUND Universal access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is still elusive in most developing nations. We asked whether peer support influenced adherence and treatment outcome and if a single viral load (VL) could define treatment failure in a resource-limited setting. METHODS A multicenter longitudinal and cross-sectional survey of VL,(More)
There is continuous need to track genetic profiles of HIV strains circulating in different geographic settings to hasten vaccine discovery and inform public health and intervention policies. We partially sequenced the reverse transcriptase region of the HIV-1 pol gene from a total of 54 Kenyan patients aged 18-56 years who continued highly active(More)
BACKGROUND There are limited reports on HIV-1 RNA load, CD4+ T-lymphocytes and antibody responses in relation to disease progression in HIV-1 infected untreated children in Africa. METHODS To describe the relationships between these parameters, we conducted a longitudinal cohort study involving 51 perinatally HIV-1 infected children aged between 1 and 13(More)
Treatment failure is a key challenge in the management of HIV-1 infection. We conducted a mixed-model survey of plasma nevirapine (NVP) concentrations (cNVP) and viral load in order to examine associations with treatment and adherence outcomes among Kenyan patients on prolonged antiretroviral therapy (ART). Blood plasma was collected at 1, 4 and 24 hours(More)
A selective and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method with electrochemical detection is described for the simultaneous quantitation of primaquine and carboxyprimaquine, its primary metabolite, in plasma. After addition of internal standard, plasma was deproteinized by addition of acetonitrile. Nitrogen-dried supernatants, resuspended in(More)
BACKGROUND Injection drug use is steadily rising in Kenya. We assessed the prevalence of both human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among injecting heroin users (IHUs) at the Kenyan Coast. METHODS A total of 186 IHUs (mean age, 33 years) from the Omari rehabilitation center program in Malindi were consented and(More)