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Higher plants, algae and some yeasts respond to potentially toxic heavy metals such as cadmium by synthesizing phytochelatins and related cysteine-rich polypeptides. We have used X-ray absorption spectroscopy to study the nature of cadmium binding in such peptides isolated from maize (Zea mays) exposed to low levels of cadmium, and in two synthetic(More)
This study was undertaken to evaluate the protective efficacy of the antioxidants vitamin E and Trolox (a water-soluble vitamin E derivative) against the toxicity of microcystin-LR (MC-LR), Microcystis aeruginosa aqueous extract (CE), and a reference toxin, menadione sodium bisulfite (MSB), in Artemia franciscana nauplii. This was achieved by using the(More)
Fish collected after a mass mortality at an artificial lake in south-east Queensland, Australia, were examined for the presence of nodularin as the lake had earlier been affected by a Nodularia bloom. Methanol extracts of muscle, liver, peritoneal and stomach contents were analysed by HPLC and tandem mass spectrometry; histological examination was conducted(More)
Extracellular copper regulates the DNA binding activity of the CopY repressor of Enterococcus hirae and thereby controls expression of the copper homeostatic genes encoded by the cop operon. CopY has a CxCxxxxCxC metal binding motif. CopZ, a copper chaperone belonging to a family of metallochaperones characterized by a MxCxxC metal binding motif, transfers(More)
Expression of the cop operon which effects copper homeostasis in Enterococcus hirae is controlled by the copper responsive repressor CopY. Purified Zn(II)CopY binds to a synthetic cop promoter fragment in vitro. Here we show that the 8 kDa protein CopZ acts as a copper chaperone by specifically delivering copper(I) to Zn(II)CopY and releasing CopY from the(More)
High-resolution crystal structures are described for seven macrocycles complexed with HIV-1 protease (HIVPR). The macrocycles possess two amides and an aromatic group within 15-17 membered rings designed to replace N- or C-terminal tripeptides from peptidic inhibitors of HIVPR. Appended to each macrocycle is a transition state isostere and either an acyclic(More)
The cyanobacterial toxin cylindrospermospin (CYN) was shown to inhibit the eukaryotic protein synthesis apparatus with similar potency in plant and mammalian cell extracts, IC(50) of 334 nM in wheat germ extract and 110 nM in reticulocyte lysate. [(14)C] CYN binding was assessed in reticulocyte lysates, following separation of ribosomes from free toxin on(More)
Cylindrospermopsin (CYN), a potent cyanobacterial hepatotoxin produced by Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and other cyanobacteria, is regularly found in water supplies in many parts of the world, and has been associated with the intoxication of humans and livestock. In this study, Balb/c mice were injected via the intraperitoneal (IP) route with a single(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the present risk factor based approach in diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Sri Lanka in comparison with new guidelines proposed by the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG). METHODS A community based cross sectional descriptive study was conducted among pregnant women with(More)
A referee analysis method for the detection and quantification of Pacific ciguatoxins in fish flesh has recently been established by the public health analytical laboratory for the State of Queensland, Australia. Fifty-six fish samples were analysed, which included 10 fillets purchased as negative controls. P-CTX-1 was identified in 27 samples, and P-CTX-2(More)