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BACKGROUND Children exposed to early-life psychosocial deprivation associated with institutional rearing are at markedly elevated risk of developing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Neurodevelopmental mechanisms that explain the high prevalence of ADHD in children exposed to institutionalization are unknown. We examined whether abnormalities(More)
A conditioned taste aversion procedure was used to produce an avoidance of saccharin by rats. In the first experiment, saccharin consumption was paired with cyclophosphamide in two conditioning trials during which the animals were permitted to engage in pica. In the second experiment, saccharin consumption was paired with lithium chloride in four(More)
Working memory develops slowly: Even by age 8, children are able to maintain only half the number of items that adults can remember. Neural substrates that support performance on working memory tasks also have a slow developmental trajectory and typically activate to a lesser extent in children, relative to adults. Little is known about why younger(More)
The fatigue strength of vertebral posterior elements was determined by applying repetitive forces to the inferior joints between the articular processes of human rhesus-monkey vertebrae. The results indicate that in vivo stresses resulting from unusual activities for sustained periods can induce fatigue fracture of the lumbar vertebrae. Comparison of these(More)
The purpose of the present study was to measure serum concentrations of stem cell factor (SCF) and interleukin-3 (IL-3) in patients with acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Serum samples from 15 patients were taken on day of admission and days 7, 14, 21, and 28. Anemia developed in 80% of patients. A transient increase in IL-3 could be observed at the(More)
Inhibitory control is widely hypothesized to be the cornerstone of executive function in childhood and the central deficit in a number of developmental disorders, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, recent evidence from adults indicates that performance on response inhibition tasks may primarily reflect non-inhibitory(More)
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