Warren S. Alexander

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Members of the suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family are potentially key physiological negative regulators of interleukin-6 (IL-6) signaling. To examine whether SOCS3 is involved in regulating this signaling, we have used conditional gene targeting to generate mice lacking Socs3 in the liver or in macrophages. We show that Socs3 deficiency results(More)
Mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) is a component of the "necrosome," the multiprotein complex that triggers tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced cell death by necroptosis. To define the specific role and molecular mechanism of MLKL action, we generated MLKL-deficient mice and solved the crystal structure of MLKL. Although MLKL-deficient mice were(More)
The suppressors of cytokine signalling (SOCS) are a family of intracellular proteins, several of which have emerged as key physiological regulators of cytokine responses, including those that regulate the immune system. The SOCS proteins seem to regulate signal transduction by combining direct inhibitory interactions with cytokine receptors and signalling(More)
Mice lacking suppressor of cytokine signaling-1 (SOCS1) develop a complex fatal neonatal disease. In this study, SOCS1-/- mice were shown to exhibit excessive responses typical of those induced by interferon gamma (IFNgamma), were hyperresponsive to viral infection, and yielded macrophages with an enhanced IFNgamma-dependent capacity to kill L. major(More)
The role of cytokines in regulation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) remains poorly understood. Herein we demonstrate that thrombopoietin (THPO) and its receptor, MPL, are critically involved in postnatal steady-state HSC maintenance, reflected in a 150-fold reduction of HSCs in adult Thpo(-/-) mice. Further, whereas THPO and MPL proved not required for(More)
Cytokines are an integral component of the adaptive and innate immune responses. The signaling pathways triggered by the engagement of cytokines with their specific cell surface receptors have been extensively studied and have provided a profound understanding of the intracellular machinery that translates exposure of cells to cytokine to a coordinated(More)
Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) is a critical regulator of cytokine signaling and immune responses. SOCS1-deficient mice develop severe inflammatory disease, but are very resistant to viral infections. Using neutralizing antibody to type I interferon (IFN-α and IFN-β) and mice deficient in interferon-γ or type I interferon receptor components(More)
Upon ligand binding, RIPK1 is recruited to tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF) and Toll-like receptor (TLR) complexes promoting prosurvival and inflammatory signaling. RIPK1 also directly regulates caspase-8-mediated apoptosis or, if caspase-8 activity is blocked, RIPK3-MLKL-dependent necroptosis. We show that C57BL/6 Ripk1(-/-) mice die at(More)
The proliferative phase of mammary alveolar morphogenesis is initiated during early pregnancy by rising levels of serum prolactin and progesterone, establishing a program of gene expression that is ultimately responsible for the development of the lobuloalveoli and the onset of lactation. To explore this largely unknown genetic program, we constructed(More)
One of the most common analysis tasks in genomic research is to identify genes that are differentially expressed (DE) between experimental conditions. Empirical Bayes (EB) statistical tests using moderated genewise variances have been very effective for this purpose, especially when the number of biological replicate samples is small. The EB procedures can(More)