Warren McDonald

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The International Panel on MS Diagnosis presents revised diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis (MS). The focus remains on the objective demonstration of dissemination of lesions in both time and space. Magnetic resonance imaging is integrated with dinical and other paraclinical diagnostic methods. The revised criteria facilitate the diagnosis of MS in(More)
Recent MRI studies in multiple sclerosis have highlighted the potential importance of spinal cord atrophy (implicating axonal loss) in the development of disability. However, the techniques applied in these initial studies have poor reproducibility which limits their application in the serial monitoring of patients. The aim of this study was to develop a(More)
A series of 68 patients with neurosarcoidosis is reported, with particular emphasis on clinical aspects, diagnosis and treatment. A classification system based on clinical diagnostic probability is proposed, consisting of probable and definite disease, the latter being dependent on finding sarcoid granulomas on nervous system histology, which was obtained(More)
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and MRI were carried out in 11 patients with multiple sclerosis who had clinical evidence of severe cerebellar involvement, 11 multiple sclerosis patients (of similar age and disease duration) who had minimal or no signs of cerebellar disease, eight patients with autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia (ADCA) and 11(More)
The form and distribution of MRI abnormalities in 114 patients with clinically definite multiple sclerosis (MS) have been compared with observations on 53 apparently healthy individuals, 129 patients with isolated focal neurological lesions with which MS often presents (51 patients with optic neuritis, 44 with isolated brainstem lesions and 34 with isolated(More)
We performed spin echo magnetic resonance imaging with and without application of an off-resonance saturation pulse in 43 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), 10 age-matched controls, and 4 elderly asymptomatic patients with the radiological diagnosis of small-vessel disease. Magnetization transfer (MT) ratio images were obtained from these. All MS(More)
We performed MRI of brain and spinal cord on 80 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Using multi-array coils and fast spin echo, 139 intrinsic lesions were identified in 59 patients (74%). Lesions were more common in the cervical than in the thoracic cord. Cross-sectional areas of the cord, measured from axial images at four levels, showed atrophy in 40%.(More)
OBJECTIVES Since Devic's original description of neuromyelitis optica in 1894 there has been much debate regarding its aetiology. A specific cause has been identified in a minority of cases but in most the question has arisen whether or not Devic's neuromyelitis optica is a variant of multiple sclerosis. This study was undertaken to help clarify this issue.(More)
Recent studies of the spinal cord and cerebellum have highlighted the importance of atrophy in the development of neurological impairment in multiple sclerosis. We have therefore developed a technique to quantify the volume of another area commonly involved pathologically in multiple sclerosis: the cerebral white matter. The technique we describe extracts(More)