Warren M. Grill

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Human nerve fibers exhibit a distinct pattern of threshold fluctuation following a single action potential known as the recovery cycle. We developed geometrically and electrically accurate models of mammalian motor nerve fibers to gain insight into the biophysical mechanisms that underlie the changes in axonal excitability and regulate the recovery cycle.(More)
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective therapy for medically refractory movement disorders. However, fundamental questions remain about the effects of DBS on neurons surrounding the electrode. Experimental studies have produced apparently contradictory results showing suppression of activity in the stimulated nucleus, but increased inputs to(More)
OBJECTIVE To provide an analysis of stimulation parameters for deep brain stimulation (DBS). METHODS Synthesis of theoretical and empirical findings is used to provide guidance for the selection of stimulus parameters. Finite element modeling is used to investigate the effects of contact location and electrode geometry on the electric field, and to(More)
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an effective treatment for movement disorders, but the mechanisms are unclear. DBS generates inhibition of neurons surrounding the electrode while simultaneously activating the output axons of local neurons. This dual effect does not explain two hallmarks of DBS effectiveness: symptom relief is dependent on using a(More)
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the basal ganglia can alleviate the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease although the therapeutic mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesize that DBS relieves symptoms by minimizing pathologically disordered neuronal activity in the basal ganglia. In human participants with parkinsonism and clinically effective deep brain leads,(More)
We have developed a method to predict excitation of axons based on the response of passive models. An expression describing the transmembrane potential induced in passive models to an applied electric field is presented. Two terms were found to drive the polarization of each node. The first was a source term described by the activating function at the node,(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine the electrical properties of the encapsulation tissue that surrounds electrodes chronically implanted in the body. Two four-electrode arrays, fabricated from either epoxy or silicone rubber, were implanted in each of six adult cats for 82 to 156 days.In vivo measurements of tissue resistivity using the(More)
High-frequency stimulation (HFS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) or internal segment of the globus pallidus is a clinically successful treatment for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. However, the mechanisms by which HFS alleviates these symptoms are not understood. Whereas initial studies focused on HFS-induced changes in neuronal firing rates,(More)
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) and lesioning are two surgical techniques used in the treatment of advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD) in patients whose symptoms are not well controlled by drugs, or who experience dyskinesias as a side effect of medications. Although these treatments have been widely practiced, the mechanisms behind DBS and lesioning are still(More)
The energy efficiency of stimulation is an important consideration for battery-powered implantable stimulators. We used a genetic algorithm (GA) to determine the energy-optimal waveform shape for neural stimulation. The GA was coupled to a computational model of extracellular stimulation of a mammalian myelinated axon. As the GA progressed, waveforms became(More)