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INTRODUCTION The effect of reducing gravity on locomotion has been studied using microgravity analogues. However, there is no known literature comparing locomotion in actual microgravity (AM) to locomotion in simulated microgravity (SM). METHODS Five subjects were tested while walking at 1.34 m x s(-1) and running at 3.13 m x s(-1) on a treadmill during(More)
Although the preferred transition speed (PTS) reported by various researchers is relatively consistent, the amount of observed hysteresis (difference between the walk-run and the run-walk transition speed) varies considerably. Variations in reported hysteresis appear to be related to the protocol used to determine the transition speeds. This investigation(More)
When a treadmill accelerates continuously, the walk-run transition has generally been assumed to occur at the instant when a flight phase is first observed, while the run-walk transition has been assumed to occur at the instant of the first double support period. There is no theoretical or empirical evidence to suggest that gait transitions occur at the(More)
Four black belt throwers (tori) and one black belt faller (uke) were filmed and analyzed in three-dimensions using two video cameras (JVC 60 Hz) and motion analysis software. Average linear momentum in the anteroposterior (x), vertical (y), and mediolateral (z) directions and average resultant impulse of uke's center of mass (COM) were investigated for(More)
The primary purpose of this project was to examine whether lower extremity joint kinetic factors are related to the walk-run gait transition during human locomotion. Following determination of the preferred transition speed (PTS), each of the 16 subjects walked down a 25-m runway, and over a floor-mounted force platform at five speeds (70, 80, 90, 100, and(More)
Mechanical strain plays an important role in skeletal health, and the ability to accurately and noninvasively quantify bone strain in vivo may be used to develop preventive measures that improve bone quality and decrease fracture risk. A non-invasive estimation of bone strain requires combined musculoskeletal - finite element modeling, for which the applied(More)
Farm youth often carry loads that are proportionally large and/or heavy, and field measurements have determined that these tasks are equivalent to industrial jobs with high injury risks. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of age, load amount, and load symmetry on lower extremity joint moments during carrying tasks. Three age groups (8-10(More)
Shock waves resulting from the foot-ground impact are attenuated by biological tissues within the body. It has been suggested that the primary site for shock attenuation is the knee joint. The purpose of this study was to determine if knee flexion affects the filtering characteristics of the musculoskeletal system in response to impacts. Impacts were(More)
Most running studies have considered level running (LR), yet the regulation of locomotor behaviour during uphill (UR) and downhill (DR) running is fundamental to increase our understanding of human locomotion. The purpose of this article was to review the existing literature regarding biomechanical, neuromuscular and physiological adaptations during graded(More)
Scientific experiments on running mainly consider level running. However, the magnitude and etiology of fatigue depend on the exercise under consideration, particularly the predominant type of contraction, which differs between level, uphill, and downhill running. The purpose of this review is to comprehensively summarize the neurophysiological and(More)