Warren A McDonald

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UNLABELLED The effects of exercise on the immune system has been shown to be dependent on the level of fitness of the subjects, the degree of intensity, and the duration of the exercise. A reduction in salivary IgA levels occurs after individual sessions of exercise. PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between changes in(More)
The impact of a 12-week training program by elite swimmers on systemic and mucosal immunity was studied prospectively to examine the relationship between changes in immune parameters and the incidence of respiratory illness. Saliva was collected before and after selected training sessions at 2 weekly intervals. There were significant decreases in salivary(More)
The impact of long-term training on systemic and mucosal immunity was assessed prospectively in a cohort of elite swimmers over a 7-month training season in preparation for national championships. The results indicated significant suppression (P < 0.05) of serum IgA, IgG and IgM and salivary IgA concentration in athletes associated with long-term training(More)
To determine the immunologic consequences of athletic training at altitude, blood samples were taken at rest from 10 swimmers and 8 control nontraining but altitude-exposed members of the 1996 Australian Olympic Swimming Team, near the start and completion of a 21-day training camp at 2102 m. Blood leukocyte numbers dropped in both groups (p < 0.05), with(More)
PURPOSE The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between latent viral shedding of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in saliva, upper-respiratory illness, and mucosal immune suppression in a cohort of highly trained swimmers undertaking intensive training. METHODS Saliva was collected before selected training sessions from 14 elite male swimmers(More)
The concentrations of total IgA, IgA1 and IgA2 were measured in saliva collected from 25 elite swimmers in the early and late phases of a 7 month training season and compared with the number of respiratory infections during the season. The IgA1 concentrations in the early phase of the training season were significantly associated (P = 0.01) with the number(More)
Staphylococcus epidermidis is the most frequent cause of peritonitis complicating continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. We studied factors that might influence the growth of S. epidermidis in commercially available peritoneal dialysis solution (PDS). Test strains were inoculated into PDS and incubated overnight at 37 degrees C. Samples were removed at(More)
Twelve hundred ninety-six cows on 88 farms were alternately injected at calving with Levamisol or saline. Each farm was visited every 2nd wk from May to October to administer treatments to cows that would calve prior to our next visit and to collect fecal grab samples from cows for worm egg counts. Production records were collected for each cow for their(More)
The purpose of this study was to analyze retrospectively all injuries occurring in a population of elite rowers over a 10-yr period to determine their pattern of injury. The medical records of all rowers at the Australian Institute of Sport from 1985 to 1994 inclusive were reviewed and all injuries included. Injuries were categorized according to time,(More)