Waqas Akram

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Over-sampled digital-to-analog converters typically employ a unit-element architecture to drive out the analog signal. Performance can suffer from errors due to mismatch between unit elements, leading to a sharp drop in the achievable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Mismatch noise shaping is an established technique for overcoming these limitations, but(More)
Quadrature bandpass delta-sigma data converters are widely used in low-IF receiver applications where high linearity is required over a narrow bandwidth. A quadrature delta-sigma modulator with multibit quantization requires a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) for each of the in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) paths. Device mismatch errors in the DAC can(More)
Dedicated to the memory of my loving parents, Zakia and Muhammad Akram. My mother was a mathematician and my father an engineer. Together, they ignited my passion to explore and encouraged my tenacity to succeed, but above all else, they nurtured me with patience and showed me how to persevere. his limitless patience and the thoughtful guidance he has(More)
Seawater desalination plants discharge brine which is at higher salt concentration than the supplied seawater feed. Diluting this brine by mixing it with the lower concentration feed (seawater) will reduce the environmental hazards associated with the high salt concentration of the disposed brine. Energy can be generated from the dilution process in which(More)
CONTEXT In recent years, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has become an important outcome measure in epidemiologic studies and clinical trials. For patients with asthma there are many instruments but most of them have been developed in English. With the increase in research project, researchers working in other languages have two options; either to(More)
this project is concerned with finding ways to synthesize hardware-efficient digital filter algorithms given technology and data-rate constraints. The synthesis flow targets embedded systems implemented in application specific integrated circuits (ASICs). The flexibility inherent in such custom implementations provides opportunities for optimization down to(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE The stigmatisation degree, self-esteem and knowledge either directly or indirectly influence the control and self-management of asthma. To date, there is no valid and reliable instrument that can assess these key issues collectively. The main aim of this study was to test the reliability and validity of the newly devised and(More)
There is no instrument which collectively assesses the knowledge, attitude and perceived practice of asthma among community pharmacists. Therefore, this study aimed to validate the instrument which measured the knowledge, attitude and perceived practice of asthma among community pharmacists by producing empirical evidence of validity and reliability of the(More)
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