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Detecting conformational change in protein or peptide is imperative in understanding their dynamic function and diagnosing diseases. Existing techniques either rely on ensemble average that lacks the necessary sensitivity or require florescence labeling. Here we propose to discriminate between different protein conformations with multiple layers of graphene(More)
The ZigBee standard which has been widely adopted for wireless sensor networks specifies two routing protocols. One is a path search protocol which finds the best path by flooding whole or part of the network with path search messages costing significant amount of energy and bandwidth. The other is a simple tree routing protocol which eliminates path search(More)
Self-healing is an important feature of robust and reliable wireless sensor networks. ZigBee is an industrial standard widely adopted for wireless sensor networks. We propose an efficient process for a ZigBee network to repair itself after node failure or communication breakdown. It allows a disconnected subnet to rejoin the network with minimum message(More)
In clustered wireless sensor networks, cluster-heads (CHs) are the key. And the CH selection methods can affect the efficiency of the cluster and even influence the lifetime of an energy-constrained network. In this paper, we propose the Energy-consumption-cycle based Cluster-heads Selection (ECHS) protocol. ECHS selects CHs via two phases. In the first(More)