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Bacterial pathogenicity islands (PAI) often encode both effector molecules responsible for disease and secretion systems that deliver these effectors to host cells. Human enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), enteropathogenic E. coli, and the mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium (CR) possess the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) PAI. We(More)
The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a macromolecular 'injectisome' that allows bacterial pathogens to transport virulence proteins into the eukaryotic host cell. This macromolecular complex is composed of connected ring-like structures that span both bacterial membranes. The crystal structures of the periplasmic domain of the outer membrane secretin(More)
The type III secretion system (T3SS) ATPase is the conserved and essential inner-membrane component involved in the initial stages of selective secretion of specialized T3SS virulence effector proteins from the bacterial cytoplasm through to the infected host cell, a process crucial to subsequent pathogenicity. Here we present the 1.8-A-resolution crystal(More)
During infection by Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, the type III secretion system (T3SS) is assembled to allow for the direct transmission of bacterial virulence effectors into the host cell. The T3SS system is characterized by a series of prominent multi-component rings in the inner and outer bacterial membranes, as well as a translocation pore in the(More)
Many studies have shown that genetic susceptibility plays a key role in determining whether bacterial pathogens successfully infect and cause disease in potential hosts. Surprisingly, whether host genetics influence the pathogenesis of attaching and effacing (A/E) bacteria such as enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli has not been(More)
We determined the complete genome sequence of Shigella flexneri serotype 2a strain 2457T (4,599,354 bp). Shigella species cause >1 million deaths per year from dysentery and diarrhea and have a lifestyle that is markedly different from those of closely related bacteria, including Escherichia coli. The genome exhibits the backbone and island mosaic structure(More)
Enteric bacterial pathogens cause food borne disease, which constitutes an enormous economic and health burden. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) causes a severe bloody diarrhea following transmission to humans through various means, including contaminated beef and vegetable products, water, or through contact with animals. EHEC also causes a(More)
Human enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC), enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), and the mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium (CR) belong to the family of attaching and effacing (A/E) bacterial pathogens. They possess the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island, which encodes a type III secretion system. These pathogens secrete a number(More)
The formation of attaching and effacing (A/E) lesions on intestinal epithelial cells is an essential step in the pathogenesis of human enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and of the mouse pathogen Citrobacter rodentium. The genes required for the development of the A/E phenotype are located within a pathogenicity island known as the(More)
The bacterial pathogen Citrobacter rodentium belongs to a family of gastrointestinal pathogens that includes enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and is the causative agent of transmissible colonic hyperplasia in mice. The molecular mechanisms used by these pathogens to colonize host epithelial surfaces and form attaching and effacing(More)