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The midbrain dopamine system can be divided into two groups of cells based on chemical characteristics and connectivity. The dorsal tier neurons, which include the dorsal pars compacta and the ventral tegmental area, are calbindin-positive, and project to the shell of the nucleus accumbens. The ventral tier neurons are calbindin-negative and project to the(More)
We describe here a protocol developed to detect specific mRNAs by in situ hybridization using tissue sections that were not treated to inactivate RNase and were stored in cryoprotectant solution for several years. Brains from rats, monkeys and humans were sectioned at 50 microns and stored free floating in an ethylene glycol based cryoprotective solution at(More)
We studied the distribution of preproenkephalin messenger RNA in the monkey forebrain, using a free-floating method for in situ hybridization histochemistry. Autoradiographs reveal a high level of specific hybridization to preproenkephalin messenger RNA in the monkey striatum and forebrain regions. In the monkey striatum, the distribution of(More)
The association between inflammation and cancer provides a new target for tumor biotherapy. The inflamma-tory cells and molecules within the tumor microenvironment have decisive dual roles in antitumor immunity and immune evasion. In the present study, phytohemagglutinin (PHA) was used to stimulate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to simulate the(More)
To determine whether IKK-NF-κB is activated either directly by compressive mechanical stress or by proinflammatory cytokines produced by MC3T3-E1 cells under compressive stress loading. MC3T3-E1 cells subjected to cyclic uniaxial compressive stress showed increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines and activation of the IKK-NF-κB signaling pathway(More)
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