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Vaccinia-related kinase 1 (VRK1) is a crucial protein kinase for mitotic regulation. VRK1 is known to play a role in germ cell development, and its deficiency results in sterility. Here we describe that VRK1 is essential for the maintenance of spermatogonial stem cells. To determine whether VRK1 plays a role in these cells, we assessed the population size(More)
Vaccinia virus B1 kinase plays a key role in viral DNA replication. The homologous mammalian vaccinia-related kinases (VRKs) are also implicated in the regulation of DNA replication, although direct evidence remains elusive. Here we show that VRK1 regulates cell cycle progression in the DNA replication period by inducing cyclin D1 (CCND1) expression.(More)
Circadian mRNA oscillations are the main feature of core clock genes. Among them, period 2 is a key component in negative-feedback regulation, showing robust diurnal oscillations. Moreover, period 2 has been found to have a physiological role in the cell cycle or the tumor suppression. The present study reports that 3'-untranslated region (UTR)-dependent(More)
Here, we demonstrate that kinetin riboside (KR), a cytokinin analog, induces apoptosis in HeLa and mouse melanoma B16F-10 cells. KR disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential and induced the release of cytochrome c and activation of caspase-3. Bad were upregulated while Bcl-2 was down-regulated under KR exposure. A tumor growth in mice was dramatically(More)
Vaccinia-related kinase 1 (VRK1) is a novel serine/threonine kinase that plays an important role in cell proliferation. However, little is known about the upstream regulators of VRK1 activity. Here we provide evidence for a role of protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) in the regulation of murine VRK1. We show that PKCδ interacts with VRK1, phosphorylates the Ser-355(More)
Mammalian circadian rhythm is observed not only at the suprachiasmatic nucleus, a master pacemaker, but also throughout the peripheral tissues. Investigation of the regulation of clock gene expression has mainly focused on transcriptional and posttranslational modifications, and little is known about the posttranscriptional regulation of these genes. In the(More)
VRK1-mediated phosphorylation of histone H3 should be restricted in mitosis for consistent cell cycling, and defects in this process trigger cellular catastrophe. However, an interphasic regulator against VRK1 has not been actually investigated so far. Here, we show that the histone variant macrodomain-containing histone H2A1.2 functions as a suppressor(More)
In the present study, we investigated the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the mouse core clock gene cryptochrome 1 (Cry1) at the post-transcriptional level, particularly its translational regulation. Interestingly, the 3'UTR of Cry1 mRNA decreased its mRNA levels but increased protein amounts. The 3'UTR is widely known to function as a cis-acting element of(More)
The p53 tumor suppressor protein, a critical modulator of cellular stress responses, is activated through diverse mechanisms that result in its stabilization and transcriptional activation. p53 activity is controlled by transcriptional, translational, and post-translational regulation. The major mechanisms of p53 regulation occur primarily through(More)
Interleukin 6 (IL6) is a pleiotropic cytokine that not only affects the immune system, but also plays an active role in many physiological events in various organs. Notably, 35% of systemic IL6 originates from adipose tissues under noninflammatory conditions. Here, we describe a previously unknown function of melanocortins in regulating Il6 gene expression(More)