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Here, we demonstrate that kinetin riboside (KR), a cytokinin analog, induces apoptosis in HeLa and mouse melanoma B16F-10 cells. KR disrupted the mitochondrial membrane potential and induced the release of cytochrome c and activation of caspase-3. Bad were upregulated while Bcl-2 was down-regulated under KR exposure. A tumor growth in mice was dramatically(More)
Vaccinia virus B1 kinase plays a key role in viral DNA replication. The homologous mammalian vaccinia-related kinases (VRKs) are also implicated in the regulation of DNA replication, although direct evidence remains elusive. Here we show that VRK1 regulates cell cycle progression in the DNA replication period by inducing cyclin D1 (CCND1) expression.(More)
The p53 tumor suppressor protein, a critical modulator of cellular stress responses, is activated through diverse mechanisms that result in its stabilization and transcriptional activation. p53 activity is controlled by transcriptional, translational, and post-translational regulation. The major mechanisms of p53 regulation occur primarily through(More)
Circadian mRNA oscillations are the main feature of core clock genes. Among them, period 2 is a key component in negative-feedback regulation, showing robust diurnal oscillations. Moreover, period 2 has been found to have a physiological role in the cell cycle or the tumor suppression. The present study reports that 3'-untranslated region (UTR)-dependent(More)
Vaccinia-related kinase 1 (VRK1) is a crucial protein kinase for mitotic regulation. VRK1 is known to play a role in germ cell development, and its deficiency results in sterility. Here we describe that VRK1 is essential for the maintenance of spermatogonial stem cells. To determine whether VRK1 plays a role in these cells, we assessed the population size(More)
VRK1-mediated phosphorylation of histone H3 should be restricted in mitosis for consistent cell cycling, and defects in this process trigger cellular catastrophe. However, an interphasic regulator against VRK1 has not been actually investigated so far. Here, we show that the histone variant macrodomain-containing histone H2A1.2 functions as a suppressor(More)
Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 2 (MKP2) is a member of the dual-specificity MKPs that regulate MAP kinase signaling. However, MKP2 functions are still largely unknown. In this study, we showed that MKP2 could regulate histone H3 phosphorylation under oxidative stress conditions. We found that MKP2 inhibited histone H3 phosphorylation by(More)
Vaccinia-related kinase 1 (VRK1) is a novel serine/threonine kinase that plays an important role in cell proliferation. However, little is known about the upstream regulators of VRK1 activity. Here we provide evidence for a role of protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) in the regulation of murine VRK1. We show that PKCδ interacts with VRK1, phosphorylates the Ser-355(More)
Vaccinia-related kinase 1 (VRK1) is one of the mitotic kinases that play important roles in cell cycle, nuclear condensation, and transcription regulation. Kinase domain structures of two other VRK family members (VRK2 and VRK3) have been determined previously. However, the structure of VRK1, the most extensively studied and constitutively active VRK(More)
To date, many anticancer drugs have been developed by directly or indirectly targeting microtubules, which are involved in cell division. Although this approach has yielded many anticancer drugs, these drugs produce undesirable side effects. An alternative strategy is needed, and targeting mitotic exit may be one alternative approach. Localization of(More)