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Nitric oxide (NO) inhibits vascular inflammation, but the molecular basis for its anti-inflammatory properties is unknown. We show that NO inhibits exocytosis of Weibel-Palade bodies, endothelial granules that mediate vascular inflammation and thrombosis, by regulating the activity of N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF). NO inhibits NSF disassembly of(More)
The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway plays a critical role in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) inhibits the MAPK pathway and decreases TLR signaling, but the regulation of MKP-1 is not completely understood. We now show that MKP-1 is acetylated, and that acetylation regulates its ability to interact with its(More)
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) increases expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), although the precise mechanism by which it does so is unclear. We report that Smad2, a transcription factor activated by TGF-beta, mediates TGF-beta induction of eNOS in endothelial cells. TGF-beta induces Smad2 translocation from cytoplasm to(More)
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating form of stroke. Misoprostol, a synthetic prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) analog and PGE2 receptor agonist, has shown protection against cerebral ischemia. In this study, we tested the efficacy of misoprostol in the 12-month-old mice subjected to 1 of 2 complementary ICH models, the collagenase model (primary study)(More)
Cerebellar ataxias, which comprise a wide spectrum of progressive disorders, are incurable at present. It has been reported that human umbilical mesenchymal stem cell (HU-MSC) transplantation has a protective effect on neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we investigated the effect of HU-MSCs on ataxic mice induced by cytosine beta-D-arabinofuranoside(More)
Ischemic stroke can induce immediate activation and later inhibition of the peripheral immune system which may contribute to a worse outcome. Cocaine-and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides have been reported to have neuroprotective and immunomodulatory effects in various cell and animal experimental models, respectively. In this study, CART's(More)
The MAPK pathway mediates TLR signaling during innate immune responses. We discovered previously that MKP-1 is acetylated, enhancing its interaction with its MAPK substrates and deactivating TLR signaling. As HDACs modulate inflammation by deacetylating histone and nonhistone proteins, we hypothesized that HDACs may regulate LPS-induced inflammation by(More)
Representational difference analysis of the glomerular endothelial cell response to transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) revealed a novel gene, TIMAP (TGF-beta-inhibited membrane-associated protein), which contains 10 exons and maps to human chromosome 20.q11.22. By Northern blot, TIMAP mRNA is highly expressed in all cultured endothelial and(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Carbon monoxide (CO) is a gaseous second messenger produced when heme oxygenase enzymes catabolize heme. We have demonstrated that CO can be therapeutic in ischemia-reperfusion brain injury; however, it is unclear whether CO can also offer protection in permanent ischemic stroke or what mechanism(s) underlies the effect. Heme(More)
Interest in histone deacetylase (HDAC)-based therapeutics as a potential treatment for stroke has grown dramatically. The neuroprotection of HDAC inhibition may involve multiple mechanisms, including modulation of transcription factor acetylation independent of histones. The transcription factor Nrf2 has been shown to be protective in stroke as a key(More)