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Consider the empirical spectral distribution of complex random n × n matrix whose entries are independent and identically distributed random variables with mean zero and variance 1/n. In this paper, via applying potential theory in the complex plane and analyzing extreme singular values, we prove that this distribution converges, with probability one, to(More)
A saddlepoint approximation of the Student's t-statistic was derived by Daniels and Young [Biometrika 78 (1991) 169–179] under the very stringent exponential moment condition that requires that the underlying density function go down at least as fast as a Normal density in the tails. This is a severe restriction on the approxima-tion's applicability. In(More)
This paper examines how close the chordal SLE κ curve gets to the real line asymptotically far away from its starting point. In particular, when κ ∈ (0, 4), it is shown that if β > β κ := 1/(8/κ − 2), then the intersection of the SLE κ curve with the graph of the function y = x/(log x) β , x > e, is a.s. bounded, while it is a.s. unbounded if β = β κ. The(More)
Spinal malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are relatively rare. There is little information published in the literature regarding this subject. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate factors that may affect the outcomes of patients with spinal MPNSTs by reviewing 43 patients with spinal MPNST who were treated in our hospital(More)
Ketamine, a derivative of phencyclidine that was developed in the 1960s, is an anesthetic and analgesic with hallucinogenic effects. In this paper, the pharmacological and toxicological effects of ketamine are briefly reviewed. Ketamine possesses a wide safety margin but such a therapeutic benefit is somewhat offset by its emergence phenomenon (mind-body(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Besides targeting the well-known oncogenic c-Met, crizotinib is the first oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor inhibiting anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) in clinical trials for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. Here, we assessed the possible reversal of multidrug resistance (MDR) by crizotinib in vitro and in vivo. (More)
BACKGROUND Interferon lambda 3 (IFN-λ3) is a newly identified cytokine with antiviral activity, and its single nucleotide polymorphisms are strongly associated with the treatment effectiveness and development of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. We thus examined the potential of IFN-λ3 to inhibit HIV replication and the possible mechanisms of the(More)
We developed a murine spine metastasis model by screening five metastatic non-small cell lung cancer cell lines (PC-9, A549, NCI-H1299, NCI-H460, H2030). A549 cells displayed the highest tendency towards spine metastases. After three rounds of selection in vivo, we isolated a clone named A549L6, which induced spine metastasis in 80% of injected mice. The(More)
BACKGROUND Chordoma in the spine is relatively rare, and minimal information has been published in the literature regarding this subject. Moreover, there are controversies over prognostic factors of this disease. METHODS A retrospective analysis of chordoma in the spine was performed by survival analysis. Local relapse-free survival (LRFS) and overall(More)