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Meiosis and recombination are the two opposite aspects that coexist in a DNA system. As a driving force for evolution by generating natural genetic variations, meiotic recombination plays a very important role in the formation of eggs and sperm. Interestingly, the recombination does not occur randomly across a genome, but with higher probability in some(More)
Predominantly occurring on cytosine, DNA methylation is a process by which cells can modify their DNAs to change the expression of gene products. It plays very important roles in life development but also in forming nearly all types of cancer. Therefore, knowledge of DNA methylation sites is significant for both basic research and drug development. Given an(More)
Before becoming the native proteins during the biosynthesis, their polypeptide chains created by ribosome's translating mRNA will undergo a series of "product-forming" steps, such as cutting, folding, and posttranslational modification (PTM). Knowledge of PTMs in proteins is crucial for dynamic proteome analysis of various human diseases and epigenetic(More)
As one of the most important posttranslational modifications (PTMs), ubiquitination plays an important role in regulating varieties of biological processes, such as signal transduction, cell division, apoptosis, and immune response. Ubiquitination is also named "lysine ubiquitination" because it occurs when an ubiquitin is covalently attached to lysine (K)(More)
Enzymes play pivotal roles in most of the biological reaction. The catalytic residues of an enzyme are defined as the amino acids which are directly involved in chemical catalysis; the knowledge of these residues is important for understanding enzyme function. Given an enzyme, which residues are the catalytic sites, and which residues are not? This is the(More)
Just like PTM or PTLM (post-translational modification) in proteins, PTCM (post-transcriptional modification) in RNA plays very important roles in biological processes. Occurring at adenine (A) with the genetic code motif (GAC), N(6)-methyldenosine (m(6)A) is one of the most common and abundant PTCMs in RNA found in viruses and most eukaryotes. Given an(More)
Protein phosphorylation is a posttranslational modification (PTM or PTLM), where a phosphoryl group is added to the residue(s) of a protein molecule. The most commonly phosphorylated amino acids occur at serine (S), threonine (T), and tyrosine (Y). Protein phosphorylation plays a significant role in a wide range of cellular processes; meanwhile its(More)
Protein hydroxylation is a posttranslational modification (PTM), in which a CH group in Pro (P) or Lys (K) residue has been converted into a COH group, or a hydroxyl group (-OH) is converted into an organic compound. Closely associated with cellular signaling activities, this type of PTM is also involved in some major diseases, such as stomach cancer and(More)
Protein phosphorylation plays a critical role in human body by altering the structural conformation of a protein, causing it to become activated/deactivated, or functional modification. Given an uncharacterized protein sequence, can we predict whether it may be phosphorylated or may not? This is no doubt a very meaningful problem for both basic research and(More)