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In quiescent cells, mitochondria are the primary source of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are generated by leakiness of the electron transport chain (ETC). High levels of ROS can trigger cell death, whereas lower levels drive diverse and important cellular functions. We show here by employing a newly developed mitochondrial matrix-targeted superoxide(More)
Mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction is linked to the pathogenesis of multiple diseases, including heart failure, but the specific mechanisms for this link remain largely elusive. We modeled the impairment of mitochondrial respiration by the inactivation of the Ndufs4 gene, a protein critical for complex I assembly, in the mouse heart (cKO). Although(More)
A tenet of beta1-adrenergic receptor (beta1AR) signaling is that stimulation of the receptor activates the adenylate cyclase-cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) pathway, resulting in positive inotropic and relaxant effects in the heart. However, recent studies have suggested the involvement of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in(More)
BACKGROUND Coronary artery disease leading to myocardial ischemia is the most common cause of heart failure. Apelin (APLN), the endogenous peptide ligand of the APJ receptor, has emerged as a novel regulator of the cardiovascular system. METHODS AND RESULTS Here we show a critical role of APLN in myocardial infarction (MI) and ischemia-reperfusion (IR)(More)
The transition from juvenile to adult life is accompanied by programmed remodeling in many tissues and organs, which is key for organisms to adapt to the demand of the environment. Here we report a novel regulated alternative splicing program that is crucial for postnatnal heart remodeling in the mouse. We identify the essential splicing factor ASF/SF2 as a(More)
Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) has been implicated in beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2-AR)/G(i)-mediated compartmentation of the concurrent G(s)-cAMP signaling, negating beta2-AR-induced phospholamban phosphorylation and the positive inotropic and lusitropic responses in cardiomyocytes. However, it is unclear whether PI3K crosstalks with the beta1-AR(More)
AIMS Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is an important negative regulator of the renin-angiotensin system. Loss of ACE2 enhances the susceptibility to heart disease but the mechanism remains elusive. We hypothesized that ACE2 deficiency activates the NADPH oxidase system in pressure overload-induced heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS Using the aortic(More)
RATIONALE Diabetic cardiovascular complications are reaching epidemic proportions. Angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) is a negative regulator of the renin-angiotensin system. We hypothesize that loss of ACE2 exacerbates cardiovascular complications induced by diabetes. OBJECTIVE To define the role of ACE2 in diabetic cardiovascular complications. (More)
Oxygen metabolism is a strong predictor of the general health and fitness of an organism. In this study, we hypothesized that a divergence in intrinsic aerobic fitness would co-segregate with susceptibility for cardiovascular dysfunction. To test this hypothesis, cardiac function was assessed in rats specifically selected over nineteen generations for their(More)