Walton Sumner

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INTRODUCTION Awareness and use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) has increased dramatically. Electronic Nicotine Delivery Devices deliver an aerosol comprised usually of water, propylene glycol and/or glycerin, nicotine, and flavorings. Scant research exists to evaluate the efficacy and safety of such devices, and only one quantitative survey of European(More)
CONTEXT Time preference (how preference for an outcome changes depending on when the outcome occurs) affects clinical decisions, but little is known about determinants of time preferences in clinical settings. OBJECTIVES To determine whether information about mean population time preferences for specific health states can be easily assessed, whether mean(More)
OBJECTIVE: To appraise women’s perceived risk of developing breast cancer and the effects of a physician’s educational intervention on this perception. DESIGN: Longitudinal before-and-after study involving four measures of participants’ risk of developing breast cancer. Eligible women provided the data needed to calculate an objective estimate of their(More)
OBJECTIVE Although practice guidelines sometimes make recommendations based on symptom severity, they rarely account for how patients feel about their symptoms. To investigate the possible importance of patient preferences in treatment of ischemic heart disease, we assessed attitudes toward symptoms in patients with angina pectoris. DESIGN Case series. (More)
BACKGROUND AND DESIGN Patient preferences for health outcomes can be explicitly assessed and expressed in quantitative terms known as utilities. Three standard methods for utility assessment have been used to quantify patient preferences, but these methods have not previously been applied to skin disease. Eighty-seven patients with psoriasis from a tertiary(More)
INTRODUCTION Electronic cigarette users ("vapers") inhale aerosols of water, nicotine, and propylene glycol (PG) or vegetable glycerin (VG). Aerosol particle sizes should affect deposition patterns in vapers and bystanders. METHODS Aerosols were generated by a smoking machine and an electronic cigarette filled with 16mg/ml nicotine in aqueous PG or VG(More)
PURPOSE To elicit utilities on a perfect health and perfect vision scale for 5 common eye diseases. DESIGN Cross-sectional observational preference study. PARTICIPANTS We included 434 patients: 58 with diabetic retinopathy, 99 with glaucoma, 44 with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), 124 with cataract; 109 with refractive error. TESTING Standard(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to determine rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients' preferences for validated health state scenarios depicting glucocorticoid adverse events, predictors of these preferences, and psychometric properties of different preference techniques in this population. METHODS Preferences were elicited by rating scale and time(More)
OBJECTIVES To estimate the frequency of ambulatory care-sensitive hospitalizations (ACSHs) and to compare the risk of ACSH in breast cancer survivors living in high-poverty with that of those in low-poverty areas. DESIGN Prospective, multilevel study. SETTING National, population-based 1991 to 1999 National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology,(More)
OBJECTIVE To motivate the role for preference assessment in women's health and to report pilot data addressing the performance of automated time-trade-off (TTO) valuations of current health, which were developed to estimate quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) in the women's health setting. METHODS Values for current health relative to perfect health and(More)