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Molar growth yields, fermentation balances and enzyme activities were measured in Veillonella alcalescens grown anaerobically with different substrates in the absence or presence of fumarate or nitrate. The molar growth yields on malate (14.3 g dry wt bacteria/mole substrate) and citrate (19.3) were higher than that on lactate (8.6). The molar growth yield(More)
RNA silencing or interference (RNAi) is a gene regulation mechanism in eukaryotes that controls cell differentiation and developmental processes via expression of microRNAs. RNAi also serves as an innate antiviral defence response in plants, nematodes, and insects. This antiviral response is triggered by virus-specific double-stranded RNA molecules (dsRNAs)(More)
For six strains of Bifidobacterium bifidum (Lactobacillus bifidus), fermentation balances of glucose, lactose, galactose, mannitol, and xylose were determined. Products formed were acetate, l(+)-lactate, ethyl alcohol, and formate. l(+)-Lactate dehydrogenase of all strains studied was found to have an absolute requirement for fructose-1,6-diphosphate. The(More)
The question of whether RNA interference (RNAi) acts as an antiviral mechanism in mammalian cells remains controversial. The antiviral interferon (IFN) response cannot easily be distinguished from a possible antiviral RNAi pathway owing to the involvement of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) as a common inducer molecule. The non-structural protein 3 (NS3) protein(More)
RNA silencing or RNAi interference (RNAi) serves as an innate antiviral mechanism in plants, fungi and animals. Human viruses, like plant viruses, encode suppressor proteins or RNAs that block or modulate the RNAi pathway. This review summarizes the mechanisms by which pathogenic human viruses affect the RNAi pathway. Furthermore, some applications of the(More)
The NS1 gene of influenza A virus encodes a multi-functional protein that plays an important role in counteracting cellular antiviral mechanisms such as the interferon (IFN), protein kinase R and retinoic acid-inducible gene product I pathways. In addition, NS1 has recently been shown to have RNA interference (RNAi) or RNA silencing suppression (RSS)(More)
Inhibition of virus replication by means of RNA interference has been reported for several important human pathogens, including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). RNA interference against these pathogens has been accomplished by introduction of virus-specific synthetic small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) or DNA constructs encoding short-hairpin RNAs(More)